Genoese mariner who discovered the Americas while searching for a new trade route to India.
Colonial settlements established for economic or financial purposes by various companies. Although usually chartered by the Crown, their remote circumstances helped foster the idea and practice of self-governance
Virginia Colonist who pioneered the cultivation of tobacco as a profitable agricultural enterprise. Rolfe also married Pocahontas in 1614.
Land owners would pay the passage of those willing to come to the colonies in exchange for an agreed-upon term of service, after which the indentureed servant was released from his obligation and was then free to seek his own fortune.
House of Burgesses
An assembly of representatives elected by the common people of the Virginia colony, similar to the House of Commons.
Settlements based on religious or moral values, mostly interested in being an example to Europe or living according to their own moral liberty.
Small congregation of separatists seeking to distance themselves, physically and spiritually, from the Church of England by emigrating to New England.
1550?-1630 Writer and proponent of the Separatist movement that demanded sparation from the Church of England. His writings inspired group such as the pilgrims to emigrate to America for religious freedom.
British religious emigrants who wanted to reform the Church of England rather than sever all ties with it; their beliefs in the Christian calling, Moral Self-Governance, and in being God's Elect would help shape the Founding and American national character.
1509-1564 John Calvin was a french theologian during the protestant reformation who greatly influenced Puritan beliefs. He taught that the Bible was the final authority for matters of faith and that salvation came through grace only (not works). He also taught the doctrine of predestination.
From John Calvin's predestination theology, the doctrine that God has already chosen those who will be saved. These elect people are to build a holy community as an example.
The Christian Calling
From the theology of John Calvin - people should pursue a "calling" in some sort of worldly work where they are to rise early in the morning, work hard, save their money and invest it wisely. Prosperity indicates God's approval.
Puritan ideal that all must live a righteous life largely on their own, with each man being responsible for his own actions and those of his family - with an eye on his neighbor as well.
1587-1649 John Winthrop was elected governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony before their departure from England, and re-elected many times. He is known for his sermon "A model of Christian Charity," in which he stated that the Puritan colony would be "a city upon a hill."
Latin for clean slate or blank slate. Puritans felt that the new world was a tabula rasa on which mankind could begin the human story anew.
City on a Hill
Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty (where people did only that which was just and good) that would be an example to the world.
where man are free to do what they please, without regard for the moral value of their actions.
According to John Winthrop, "Where men were free to do only that which is good, just, and honest."