Pathophysiology -Cell

  1. what is a cytoskeleton?
    A protein network inside a cell
  2. Why is ongoing synthesis of ATP necessary for cell survival?
    For ion pumping and other cellular processes
  3. main principle of fluid mosaic model?
    proteins float in a fluid lipid bilayer.
  4. Transport channels, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules all are found in cell membranes and they are made primarily of what?
  5. what is function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    lipid synthesis and metabolism
  6. Which form of molecular transport requires energy in the form of ATP?
    active transport
  7. A white blood cell can ingest bacteria or cellular debris through what process?
  8. The cellular structure that contains DNA
  9. Signaling molecules such as hormones and growth factors influence their target cells by binding to what?
  10. what cellular processes can operate without oxygen?
  11. what is lysosome?
    A membrane-bound bag of degradative enzymes within a cell
  12. Movement of water through a membrane that separates two compartments with unequal concentration
  13. Under aerobic conditions, what process produces most of the energy for the cell?
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  14. chief function of the Golgi apparatus
    packaging proteins into secretory vesicles.
  15. function of ribosome?
    protien synthesis
  16. atrophy
    reduction in cell size and function; wasting
  17. hypertrophy
    increase in cell size or function
  18. hyperplasia
    abnormal increase or multiplication of normal cells in normal arrangement in tissues
  19. metaplasia
    transformation of one tissue to another fully differentiated tissue form
  20. dysplasia
    alteration in cell growth where cell morphology is variable and disorderly
  21. causes of atrophy?
    • disuse
    • denervation
    • ischemia
    • nutrient starvation
    • interruption of endocrine signals
    • persistant cell injury
    • aging
  22. example of hypertrophy?
    increase in skeletal muscle mass and strength in response to repeated exercise in
  23. cells that can undergo hyperplasia?
    cells capable of mitotic division
  24. why metaplasia occurs?
    adaptation to persistant injury, with the replacement cell type better able to tolerate the injurious stimulation
  25. why is dysplasia a worrisome change in cells?
    the potential to transform into cancerous cells adn are regarded as preneoplastic lesions
  26. dynamic
    a characteristic of motion, change or action
  27. cause of cell swelling?
    reversible injuries and early stages of irreversible injury
  28. causes of intracellular accumulation?
    • excess amount of normal intracellular substances such as fat
    • accumulation of abnormal substances produced by cell beause of faulty metabolism or synthesis
    • accumulation of pigments adn partricles that the cell is unable to degrade.
  29. normal intracellular substances that accumulate in injured cells?
    • lipid
    • carb
    • glycogen
    • protien
  30. what is fatty liver? cause?
    fatty liver is lipid accumulation in liver usually associated with too much alcohol r/t direct toxic effets as well as metabolism of alcohol instead of fat.
  31. melanin?
    cause of suntan?
    • melanin is skin pigmentation
    • suntan is an accumulation of melanin in the skin
  32. source of hemosiderin and bilirubin?
    derived from hemoglobin
  33. what is result of inhaled dust adn accumulated in lung tissue?
    cause chronic inflammatory reactions in lung which result in destruction of pulmonary alveoli and capillaries and formation of scar tissue
  34. How can calcification of a heart valve or an arteriole cause dysfunction?
    it can cause obstruction to blood flow through heart or interfere with valve closing. calcification of blood vessels may ressult in narrowing of vesssels and insufficient blood flow to distal tissues.
Card Set
Pathophysiology -Cell
module 1- cellular adaption, injury and death