1. 3 types of base pair mutations during protein synthesis
    • 1.subsitution
    • 2.insertion
    • 3.deletion
  2. what kind of nucleid acid can be found in viruses
    RNA or DNA
  3. whats retrovirus
    an RNA virus that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase which uses the RNA as template for DNA synthesis
  4. whats prophage (provirus)
    virus that has integrated its DNA into the host cell's DNA
  5. lytic and lysogenic cycle?
    • bacteriophage infection results in either lytic or lysogenic cycle
    • lytic: the production of new progeny that causes the cell to burst.
    • lysogenic: incorporation of viral DNA into the bacterial DNA where it remains inactive. may progress to lytic cycle
  6. 3 ways bacteria can increase genetic variability
    • 1. transformation- incorporation of foreign chromosome fragments
    • 2.conjugation- transfer of genetic material btwn 2 bact
    • 3.transduction- virus carries DNA btwn 2 bact
  7. operon?
    gene that regulates (bacterial) transcription
  8. inducible system
    requires the presence of an inducer for transcription to occur
  9. repressible system
    constant state of transcription unless a corepressor is present to stop it
  10. model of punctuated equilibrium
    evolution is characterized by long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid evolutionary changes
  11. the difference between homologous and analogous structures
    homologous structure- similar structure in origin, but not function

    analogous structure - similar i function but not in origin
  12. Hardy Weinberg equation? what each represent?

    • p2- freq of homozygous dominants
    • 2pq - freq of heterozygotes
    • q2-freq of homozygous recessives
  13. 5 necessary conditions for Hardy Weinberg equation
    • mutation affect the gene pool
    • 2.large population
    • 3.genes in population are equally successful at reproducing
    • 4.mating occurs at random
    • 5.the migration or individuals in or out of population
  14. genetic drift vs. genetic flow?
    drift-change in the gene pool due to chance.

    flow-changing of the gene pool due to migration of individuals
  15. function of surfactant?
    reduces surface tension on alveoli and facilitate gas exchange
  16. vital capacity?
    maximum amount of air that can be inhaled
  17. total lung capacity?
    vital capacity + residual volume
  18. difference btwn prokaryote and eukaryote
    eukaryote has membrane bound organelles, prokaryote does not
  19. plasmid?
    a smaller extrachromosomal ring of dna sometimes found in bact. it replicates independent of bact. chromosome.
  20. typical bact. cell has?
    cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, flagella, and dna
  21. where in bact. does respiration occur?
    cell membrane
  22. function of transport protein?
    helps polar molecules and certain ions across cell membrane
  23. function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    site of lipid synthesis, poison detox and protein transport
  24. function of peroxisome
    make hydrogen peroxide and digests fats into smaller molecules
  25. facilitated diffusion
    movement of dissolved particle down concentration gradient with help of carrier molecules
  26. 4 basic tissues in the body?
    muscle, nerve, epithelial and connective tissues
  27. difference btwn apoenzyme and holoenzyme?
    apoenzymes does not have its cofactor, holoenzyme does
  28. prosthetic group?
    tightly bound cofactor
  29. (t/f) all enzyme in body are proteins
    false, ribozymes are RNA enzymes
  30. allosteric enzyme?
    enzyme with 2 or more active sites. it oscillates btwn active and inactive configurations
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