urinary system.txt

  1. The main function of the kidney is to filter _______ from the blood and ____ water and nutrients, and _____ excess substances.
    waste products, reabsorb, secrete
  2. The formation of urine begins in the?
  3. Where is virtually all nutrients reabsorbed into the blood capillaries?
    proximal convoluted tubule
  4. Three major parts of the loop of Henle?
    descending limb, loop, ascending limb
  5. The kidney helps to maintain ____ balance and ______ balance of blood and body fluids.
    electrolyte, acid base
  6. As urine passes from the collecting tubules it enters the?
  7. From the major calyces, urine passes into the?
    renal pelvis
  8. To urinate or void is also called?
  9. What prevents urine from backflowing into the ureter?
    uterovessicle junction
  10. Involuntary urination is called?
  11. When one kidney must perform the function of both kidneys, it is called?
    compensatory hypertropy
  12. What appears as a round or oval density surrounded by a thin radiolucent halo that represents the wall of a prolapsed ureter (when filled with contrast)?
  13. The term for more than one ureter or renal pelvis is?
  14. Ultrasound demonstrates the lower poles of the kidney fused resulting in a _________.
    horseshoe kidney
  15. Four normal points of narrowing that are common sites of obstruction in the urinary system
    uretopelvic junction, uretovessicle junction, bladder neck, urethral meatus
  16. In chronic ________, the kidneys are bilaterally smaller with normal contours.
  17. Noncontrast helical CT is the safest method to demonstrate?
    kidney stones
  18. The renal calculus that fills the renal calyces and pelvis is called a ______ calculus.
  19. When blockage in the ureter occurs above the bladder, it may cause a?
  20. The most common unifocal mass of the kidney is a ?
    renal cyst
  21. The triad of symptoms in renal carcinoma are?
    hematuria, flank pain, possible palpable mass
  22. A multilobulated contour due to multiple cysts in the parenchyma is what disease?
    polycystic disease
  23. A plain radiograph showing punctate, coarse, or linear calcifications, usually on the periphery of the bladder is suggestive of?
  24. A lack of visualization of the renal vein on CT is indicative of?
    renal vein thrombosis
  25. Area of the kidney that the blood vessels, renal pelvis, and nerves enter and exit the kidney?
  26. Muscular structure on the posterior aspect of the bladder?
  27. What is the cup-shapped structure on top of a nephron that surrounds the glomerulus?
    Bowman's capsule
  28. Stores urine before entrance into the renal pelvis?
    major calyces
  29. Process of urination?
  30. Urine passes into the papillae through this structure?
    collecting tubules
  31. Supernumerary kidney?
    a third kidney
  32. Cystic dilation of the distal ureter?
  33. Tuft of capillaries with very thin walls and a large surface area?
  34. Uncontrolled response of voiding?
  35. Dilation of the renal pelvicalyceal area?
  36. Dilation of a ureter?
  37. Renal agenesis?
    solitary kidney
  38. Fluid-filled unilocular mass?
    renal cyst
  39. Inflammation of the bladder?
  40. Inflammatory process involving the tufts of the capillaries that filter the blood?
  41. Lesion rising from embryonic renal tissue most commonly found in infants and during childhood?
    Wilm's tumor
  42. Most common renal neoplasm, also known as hypernephroma?
    renal carcinoma
  43. Pyogenic bacteria causing inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis?
  44. Chronic renal failure results in a condition called ______ which is an accumulation of excessive blood levels of urea and creatine.
  45. 80% of _______ contain enough calcium to be radiopaque.
    urinary calculi
  46. Destructive process involving the medullary papillae and the terminal renal pyramids?
    Papillary necrosis
  47. Extension of a clot from the IVC?
    renal vein thrombosis
  48. Finger like projections into the lumen of the bladder?
    bladder carcinoma
  49. Lower poles of the left and right kidneys are fused?
    horseshoe kidney
  50. Multiple cysts of varying size causing progressive renal impairment?
    polycystic kidney
  51. What condition results in a condition called uremia?
    chronic renal failure
  52. Thin transverse membrane in the urethra preventing micturation?
    posterior urethral valves
  53. A miniature replica of a normal kidney with good function is a?
    hypoplastic kidney
  54. A kidney that is not located in the retroperitoneal space adjacent to the psoas muscle is considered an?
    eptopic kidney
  55. The modality to demonstrate the fused inferior poles of the kidneys without radiation exposure is?
  56. The _____ is a thin membrane that prevents normal urine flow.
    posterior uretral valve
  57. A _______ is a lower-pole parenchymal fusion
    horseshoe kidney
  58. A dilation of the ureter ar the ureterovesical junction is a ?
  59. Small granulomas scattered in the cortices of the kidney occurs in the hematogenous spread of?
  60. Gas-forming bacteria on plain images appearing as a lucent ring outlining all or part of the bladder are suggestive of?
    emphysematous cystitis
  61. Hydronephrosis is commonly caused by?
    a kidney stone
  62. The modality of choice to differentiate fluid-filled simple cysts from a solid mass is?
  63. The Swiss cheese pattern in the kidney is caused by?
    innumerable lucent cysts
  64. Polypoid defects and bladder wall thickening are indicative of?
    bladder carcinoma
  65. A highly malignant renal tumor most common in infancy and childhood is a ?
    Wilm's tumor
  66. The imaging criteria for pyelography are the same as for an abdominal radiograph, but must include the area from the ______ to include the _______.
    diaphragm, inferior bladder
  67. A bacterial inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed?
  68. The medical term used to describe dilated calyces and renal pelvis is?
  69. What is the name of the most common fusion anomaly of the kidneys?
    horseshoe kidney
  70. What is the name for a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near the bladder?
  71. Name of the first portion of the kidney to become visible after injection of a contrast agent.
  72. What term is used to describe a kidney not in the normal area of the abdomen?
  73. What disorder is caused by an antigen antibody reaction that occurs after a streptococcyl infection of the upper respiratory tract or middle ear?
    glomerulonephritis: becomes very permeable allowing albumin and RBCs to leak into urine
  74. The medical term for painful urination is?
  75. What is suppurative inflammation of the kideny and renal pelvis caused by bacteria from blood, lymph system or most often from stagnating urine due to obstruction?
    pyelonephritis: effects interstital tissue between tubules. Usually originates in bladder
  76. Symptoms of pyelonephritis?
    high fever, chills, sudden back pain, dysuria, pyuria
  77. Emphysematous pyelonephritis?
    gas forming bacteria occuring most commonly in diabetic pt's. Causes acute necrosis of entire kidney
  78. The kidneys sit between?
  79. The right kidney is _____ and _____ in relationship to the longer left kidney.
    lower and more anterior
  80. Nephrons filter approx _____ liters of water out of glomerular blood each day, while excreting __ liters in urine.
    190 liters, excrete 1-2 liters into urine
  81. The kidney helps maintain _______, controls the concentration and volume of _____, and excretes various amounts of ________.
    homeostasis, blood, selected wastes
  82. Path of blood into kidney to form urine?
    renal artery - interlobar artery - arcurate artery - interlobular artery - afferent arterioles - glomerulus
  83. Blood pressure is higher in the _____ than the _____ which allows water and solutes to be filtered into the ______ in which neither protein or RBCs should pass.
    glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, capsule
  84. Anomalies of size and number?
    renal agenesis, supernumerary kidney, hypoplastic kidney, compensatory hypertrophy
  85. An ectopic kidney developes _______ where as nephroptosis develpoes _______.
    out of place (will have smaller ureter), developes in the normal places but then falls out of place (has normal length ureter).
  86. Anomalies of rotation, position, and fusion?
    malrotation, ectopic kideny, horseshoe kidney, crossed kidney, complete fusion.
  87. In horseshoe kidney the ureters exit _______.
    anteriorly over the lower poles
  88. Anomalies of the renal pelvis, ureter, and urethera?
    duplication, ureterocele
  89. Cystitis is more common in?
  90. Cystitis is caused by?
    E. Coli (Escherichia Coli)
  91. How are kidney stones formed?
    Precipitation of urine products (calcium salts) out of urine solution
  92. _____ % of stones are _______ due to calcium content.
    80% radiopaque
  93. What type of stone is composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate?
    staghorn calculus
  94. PUL (percutanous ultrasonic lithotripsy) is the best treatment for?
    staghorn calculi
  95. Renal cysts are common in the _____ of the kidney.
    lower pole
  96. Modality of choice for renal cyst visualization?
  97. Pathology? Many tiny cysts at birth gradually enlarge into age 30's, compress and destroy normal tissue with end stage renal disease by age 40. (Transplant canidate)
    polycystic kidney disease
  98. Painless hematuria is a chief complaint of what pathology?
    renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
  99. Common metastasis sites (secondary) by time of diagnosis of hypernephroma?
    lungs, liver, bone, brain
  100. 5yr survival rate for PT's with hypernephroma (renal cell carcinoma)?
  101. Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma) is clinically apparent between the ages of ____ and ____.
    2-4 years old
  102. 5yr survival rate for PT's who have received treatment for Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma)?
  103. Second most common cancer of the kidney in children?`
    neuroblastoma: most often originates in the adrenal glands which displaces kidney downward.
  104. Cause of carcinoma of the bladder is related to?
    smoking, excessive coffe drinking and industrial chemicals
  105. Which cancer of the urinary system has the best prognosis?
    bladder cancer
  106. What is ARF?
    acute renal failure
  107. What pathology is the accumulation of notrogen containing wastes in the blood that causes characteristic odor of ammonia on the breath?
    ARF, acute renal failure
  108. Modality of choice for people suspected of renal failure?
    ultrasound. You don't push contrast into patients in renal failure unless you want to kill them
  109. Degree of obliquity for cystography?
    waiting for answer
  110. What is a RUG?
    retrograde urethrogram, for males
  111. Retrograde pyelography. Where is the catheter placed?
    directly into the ureters
  112. Percutaneous pyelography. What is it?
    posterolateral insertion of needle or catheter into renal pelvis. Can be left in for drainage.
  113. Placement of catheter in renal angiography?
    inserts into femoral artery, inject into or above renal artery.
  114. Normal creatine values?
  115. Normal BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
  116. A coral looking mass is a?
    papillary tumor
Card Set
urinary system.txt
CBC Radiology Pathology II