1. what is saltatory conduction?
    the jump of an action potential between unmyelinated node of ranvier
  2. what happens when a action potential reaches a synapse (in a mammal)?
    when an action potential reaches a synapse, the electrical signal causes the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic membrane into the synapse.
  3. which types of neuron serves as a link between motor and sensory neurons?
  4. what is the function of cerebral cortex?
    processes and integrates sensory input and motor response, and controls memory
  5. whats the function of hypothalamus
    responsible for visceral functions such as hunger, thirst, and sex drive
  6. what are the components of the hindbrain
    cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata
  7. what part of the brain controls autonomic activities
    medulla oblongata
  8. (t/f) sensory nerves enter the spinal cord ventrally and motor nerves leave dorsally
    false, sensory enter dorsally; motor leaves ventrally
  9. the heirarchy of the division of the peripheral nervous system
    • PNS-- sensory, motor
    • Motor--somatic, automatic
    • Automatic--- parasympathetic, sympathetic
  10. whats the difference btwn polysynaptic and monsynaptic relfex?
    mono-only one sensory and one motor neuron

    poly-one or more interneurons and one sensory and one motor neurons
  11. what types of photoreceptor cell is specialized in color?what specialized in low light?
    cones for for colors

    rods are for low light
  12. what is fovea
    an area of high density of cones
  13. component of middle ear?
    tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, and stapes
  14. component of inner ear?
    cochlea (contains organ of Corti) and semicircular canals
  15. what are alleles
    different form of the same gene. they occupy the same position on homologous chromosomes
  16. mendal's first law (segregation)
    • genes exist in alternative form (alleles)
    • one inherits two alleles of each trait... one from each parent.
    • alleles segregates during meiosis
    • if two different alleles are present only one will be fully expressed
  17. Mendal's 2nd law (independent assortment)
    alleles of unlinked genes assort independently during meiosis
  18. P= purple, p= white... whats the ratio of each:
    1.phenotype PP x pp
    2.phenotype Pp x Pp
    3.phenotype Pp x pp
    4.genotype Pp x pp
    5.genotype Pp x Pp
    • 1.100% purple
    • 2.75% purple, 25% white
    • 3.50/50
    • 4.50% Pp, 50% pp
    • 5.25% PP, 50% Pp, 25% pp
  19. Given: X and Y recombinant freq =5%
    X and Z recombinant freq =13%
    1.what is Y and Z rec freq if gene order is XYZ
    2. if it is YXZ?
    • 1.8%
    • 2.18%
  20. red flower and white flower crossed to have pink flowers... what kind of dominance?
  21. what is penetrance of a genotype?
    percent of individuals in a population who actually express its phenotype
  22. what is expressivity of a genotype
    degree to which the phenotype is expressed in an individual
  23. what percent of daughters will inherit their father's sex linked gene
  24. what percent of sons will inherit father's sex linked gene
  25. what percent of sons will inherit their mother's sex linked gene (heterozygous mother)
  26. what is nondisjunction
    failure of homologous chromosomes (or sister chromatids) to separate properly during cellular reproduction
  27. three different result of chromosomal breakage
    • 1.duplication- fragment joins with its homologous chromosome
    • 2.translocation-fragment joins with a non-homologous chromosome
    • 3.inversion-fragment rejoins its original chromosome but in reverse position
  28. name purines and pyrimidines
    purines-Adenine, Guanine

    pyrimidines- Cyotsine, Uracil, Thymine
  29. what are the 4 types of RNA, what are their functions?
    mRNA-contains the codons for peptide chain synthesis

    tRNA-transport amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis

    rRNA-strutural component of ribosome

    hnRNA-precursor of mRNA
  30. what are 3 stages of polypeptide synthesis
    initiation, elongation, termination
Card Set
my studies for the big exam