Middle Ages Review Sheet 2

  1. Franks
    Franks held power in the Roman province of Gaul. Controlled the largest and strongest of Europe's kingdoms.
  2. Clovis
    Leader of the Franks. Brought Christianity to the region. United the Franks into one kingdom.
  3. Charlemagne
    King of Frankish kingdom, spread Christianity. Reunited western Europe, became most powerful king in western Europe. Unruly mob attacked the pope, he crushed the mob. He was crowned emperor. He encouraged learning.
  4. Benedict
    Italian monk. Wrote a book with the set of rules for monasteries.
  5. Scholastica
    Benedict's sister. Headed a convent and adapted the same rules that Benedict had made.
  6. Gregory the Great
    Pope. Expanded the pope's authority into the government.
  7. Charles Martel
    A mayor of the palace. He defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours, make him a Christian hero.
  8. Vikings
    Invaded Europe. Germanic people who carried out their raids with great speed.
  9. Vassal
    a person receiving a fief (land).
  10. Serf
    people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
  11. Knights
    mounted horsemen - pledged to defend their lords' land in exchange for fiefs.
  12. Otto I
    Most effective ruler of medieval Germany. Followed in the path of Charlemagne. Crowned emperor.
  13. Pope Greg VII
    Banned lay investiture. Excommunicated King Henry. Ended Henry's excommunication.
  14. Henry IV
    Ordered Gregory to step down from the papacy after he banned lay investiture. He was excommunicated, but he was forgiven.
  15. Fredrick I
    German emperor. Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem. Drowned on the journey.
  16. Pope Urban II
    Called for a Crusade to gain control of the Holy Land.
  17. Saladin
    Muslim leader that gained control of Jerusalem.
  18. Richard the lion-hearted
    English king. Third Crusade - argued and went home.
  19. William the Conqueror
    Duke of Normandy invaded Britain. Got control of England and unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England. Unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England.
  20. Henry II
    English king that married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France.
  21. Hugh Capet
    Duke from France, weak ruler.
  22. Philip II
    Augustus of France. Third Crusade. Only one left of the three to lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regaion the Holy Land. Got a truce.
  23. John Wycliffe
    Englishman who challenged the papcy. Jesus true head of Church, not pope.
  24. Jan Hus
    influenced by Wycliffe's writings. Authority of the Bible higher than of the pope. Excommunicated and burned at the stake.
  25. Joan of arc
    felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. Led a victory against English and got Charles crowned king. Captured in battle and burned at the stake.
  26. Philip IV
    French king who asserted authority over bishop. pope responded with an official document stating that kings always must obey popes. Philip held the pope prisoner instead of obeying him. Pope was rescued, but died.
  27. Pope Boniface VIII
    Attempted to enforce papal authority on kings. Held prisoner by king, rescued but died a month later.
  28. Fief
    land granted by a landowner to a vassal.
  29. Demesne
    all of the lord's land on a manor.
  30. Chivalry
    A code written for knights.
  31. Sacrament
    important religious ceremonies
  32. Canon Law
    Church law that all Medieval Christianswere subject to
  33. Excommunicate
    Pope can excommunicate the king. King denied salvation, his vassals were freed from their duties to him.
  34. Interdict
    sacraments and religious services could nto be performed in the king's lands.
  35. Lay invesiture
    kings and nobles appointed church officials
  36. Simony
    Bishops sold positions in the Church.
  37. Crusades
    Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
  38. Common law
    rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law
  39. Magna Carta
    guaranteed basic political rights
  40. Great Schism
    A division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church. Rival popes were established. Trying to end it, a third pope was chosen. A total of three popes. All three were forced to resign.
  41. Hundred Years' War
    fought between England and France. On and off for a hundred years. French won and drove the English out of France.
  42. Longbow
    Used during the Hundred Years' war by the English army. Cheap, easy to carry, and deadly.
Card Set
Middle Ages Review Sheet 2
Middle Ages Review Sheet 2