Franks held power in the Roman province of Gaul. Controlled the largest and strongest of Europe's kingdoms.
Leader of the Franks. Brought Christianity to the region. United the Franks into one kingdom.
King of Frankish kingdom, spread Christianity. Reunited western Europe, became most powerful king in western Europe. Unruly mob attacked the pope, he crushed the mob. He was crowned emperor. He encouraged learning.
Italian monk. Wrote a book with the set of rules for monasteries.
Benedict's sister. Headed a convent and adapted the same rules that Benedict had made.
Gregory the Great
Pope. Expanded the pope's authority into the government.
A mayor of the palace. He defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours, make him a Christian hero.
Invaded Europe. Germanic people who carried out their raids with great speed.
a person receiving a fief (land).
people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
mounted horsemen - pledged to defend their lords' land in exchange for fiefs.
Most effective ruler of medieval Germany. Followed in the path of Charlemagne. Crowned emperor.
Pope Greg VII
Banned lay investiture. Excommunicated King Henry. Ended Henry's excommunication.
Ordered Gregory to step down from the papacy after he banned lay investiture. He was excommunicated, but he was forgiven.
German emperor. Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem. Drowned on the journey.
Pope Urban II
Called for a Crusade to gain control of the Holy Land.
Muslim leader that gained control of Jerusalem.
Richard the lion-hearted
English king. Third Crusade - argued and went home.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy invaded Britain. Got control of England and unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England. Unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England.
English king that married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France.
Duke from France, weak ruler.
Augustus of France. Third Crusade. Only one left of the three to lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regaion the Holy Land. Got a truce.
Englishman who challenged the papcy. Jesus true head of Church, not pope.
influenced by Wycliffe's writings. Authority of the Bible higher than of the pope. Excommunicated and burned at the stake.
Joan of arc
felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. Led a victory against English and got Charles crowned king. Captured in battle and burned at the stake.
French king who asserted authority over bishop. pope responded with an official document stating that kings always must obey popes. Philip held the pope prisoner instead of obeying him. Pope was rescued, but died.
Pope Boniface VIII
Attempted to enforce papal authority on kings. Held prisoner by king, rescued but died a month later.
land granted by a landowner to a vassal.
all of the lord's land on a manor.
A code written for knights.
important religious ceremonies
Church law that all Medieval Christianswere subject to
Pope can excommunicate the king. King denied salvation, his vassals were freed from their duties to him.
sacraments and religious services could nto be performed in the king's lands.
kings and nobles appointed church officials
Bishops sold positions in the Church.
Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law
guaranteed basic political rights
A division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church. Rival popes were established. Trying to end it, a third pope was chosen. A total of three popes. All three were forced to resign.
Hundred Years' War
fought between England and France. On and off for a hundred years. French won and drove the English out of France.
Used during the Hundred Years' war by the English army. Cheap, easy to carry, and deadly.