the process in which significant changes in the inheritable traits of a species occur over time
unchanged and unchanging (used to be believed of life forms)
preserved remains or traces of an organism or its activity; preserved intact, hard body parts, impressions, microfossils
the process of organisms becoming part of sedimentary rock layers/tar pits
what are microfossils??
microscopic remains of tiny organisms or structures that have hard and resistant outer coverings
how do fossils form nd tingz?
- 1. organisms die
- 2. organism is buried and compressed under layers of sediment
- 3. because of the pressure the deposits turn into mineralized sedimentary rock
- 4. erosion or excavation or changing sea level or faults expose the fossil
CCCCCuvier's theory on CCCCCCatastrophism is what????
castastrophies caused extinction and God replaced the species; supported by how new species are closer to the surface than old species; NOT supported by how newer species were more complex
what??? palaeontology/ palaeontologist??
- palaeontology: ross. (the study of fossils)
- palaeontologist: ross. (finds and dates fossils)
what is radioactive decay????????
using subatomic particles from the nucleus of the atom to determine ABSOLUTE AGE
what is radiometric dating??????
measuring the decay of radioisotopes in the rock
relative age vs. absolute age?????
- relative: estimate of age in relation to other specimen
- absolute: estimate of the specimen's actual age
why was bipedalism so crucialllll???
bipedalism: the ability to walk on two feet- it left the hands free to carry young, to make/use tools, to perform tasks nd tingz.
how can climate change cause a change in species???
climate can cause a species to migrate or can change the way a species interacts with the environment
homo habilis izzzzzzz???
the first tingzzz to make/use tools to adapt their environment,
homo erectus wuuuttttt?
hunted animals and gathered plants, made complex tools, used fire, formulated a language
glyptodent to ______
and megatherium to ________
- glyptodant to armadillo,
- megatherium to sloth (LAWLSKASSIALAWLS.)
homologous features are...???
features that have a common origin but not a common purpose
analogous features are...???
have a similar purpose but not a common origin :D
vestigial features are...????
features that have been carried down through evolution but no longer serve a purpose
forms of a gene
homozygous: identical paired alleles, heterozygous: different paired alleles
an organisms set of chromosomes
- genotype: set of alleles (genetic make up)
- phenotype: observable alleles
what is the HARDY-WEINBURG PRINCIPLE???
- a populations allele frequencies will NOT change as long as:
- 1. the population is large
- 2. there is no migration
- 3. there are no mutations
- 4. mating opportunities are equal
- 5. no natural selection occurs
what are the two Hardy-Weinburg equations?????
- p+q=1 and p2+2pq+q2=1
- where p is DOMINANT and q is recessive
and what is ADAPTION???
a trait that increases an organisms chances for success in a particular environment that other organisms dont haveee!!!!!
and what is CUMULATIVE SELECTION???
the ACCUMULATION of small evolutionary changes over a long period of time that lead to a new adapted species
and what is ALTRUISM/MORALISM?????
one individual decreases in fitness and another individual is assisted and increases in fitness INDIRECTLYYYY?
qu'estce que c'est KIN SELECTION tingz????
a behaviour or trait of one individual that increases the success of its close relativessss!! (:
speciation is WUUUUTTTt???
evolutionary formation of a NEW DAMN SPECIES!!!! :D
microevolution is WWWUUUUTTT????
changes in gene and phenotype frequencies in a population... CAN LEAD TO NEW SPECIESSSSS
members of a group or a population that can interbreed under natural conditionssss
WHAT ARE DEM REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS????
behavioral, structural, or BIOCHEMICAL traits that prevent individuals of different species to REPRODUCE!! :D
and wut are dem PREZYGOTIC MECHANISMS????
reproductive isolating mechanisms that prevent interspecies reproduction (SUCH AS: ecological, temporal, behavioural isolation!)
ecological isolation ISSSSSSSSS???
FOR EXAMPLLEEEE: living in different places!!!! ie at different elevations!!!
temporal isolation ISSSSS????
FOR EXAMMPLLEEE: different TIMMESSSS!!! ie plants blooming at different times of the day or yearrr!!!
behavioral isolation is WHAAATTT???
species use different ways to attract a mate!!!!! :D :D think dem dancin bird tingz!!!
mechanical isolation is WHATYOUSAYNOW????
floral features in plants can affect the transfer of pollen!
gametic isolation is WHAAATTT???
EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION TINGZ!!! clams release their sperm and eggs into the water and they be chillin and they may not ever find eachother!! :D
POST ZYGOTIC MECHANISMS ARE WUTTT???
prevents maturation and reproduction in offspring from interspecies reproductionnn!!!! like dem ZYGOTIC MORTALITY HYBRID INVIABILITY HYBRID INFERTILITY AND SUCHHHH!!
ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION IS...?????
populations of a species seperation because of geographic isolation IE birds that aren't strong flyers wont cross large bodies of water or mountain ranges!!
SYMPATRIC SPECIATION!!!! is WHATTT!!
the evolution of a species in the same geographic area, but different parts!! ie fish in different parts of a lake!!!
WHAT CAN CAUSE CHANGES IN A POPULATION???
mutations, GENETIC DRIFT, gene flow, NON-RANDOM MATING, natural selection TINGZZZ
lets be talkin bout dem mutations.
inherited change in DNA, gene locus is affected: neutral, harmful or beneficial
POINT MUTATIONS, DELETIONS, INVERSIONS, DUPLICATIONS, INSERTIONS
lets be talkin bout dat GENETIC DRIFT!!!
- RANDOM LOSS OF ALLELES!!!
- bottleneck effect: severe environment crap ALMOST wipes out a population, alleles may be lost forever or temporarily
- founder effect: a small number of dispersed individuals establish a new population somewhere else with DIFFERENT ALLELE FREQUENCIES!!!
GEEEENNNNNNEEEEE FLLOWWWWWWW. lets talk about it.
a flow of alleles in and out of a population due to migrations!!!!
so. NON-RANDOM MATING.
- IT BE INBREEDING!!!
- sexual selection!!!
- mating with relatives messes with HARDY WEINBURG TINGZZ!!!
- increases risk of homozygous recessive tingz!!
WHATS NATURAL SELECTION BOOIII???
gradual adaptations: SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.
WHAT ARE DEM TYPES OF SELECTION???
- STABILIZING: most common phenotypes are most favoured by the environment
- DIRECTIONAL: when the environment favors EXTREME variations of a trait
- DISRUPTIVE: favours OPPOSITE EXTREMES over intermediate variations (yawutiknow.)
- SEXUAL: individuals that reproduce frequently make more of a contribution to the gene pool
phylogeny is WHAATtt????
the "evolutionary development and history" of a species or group
cladistics be WHATTT????
- determining the method used to determine the sequence of branches in a phylogenetic tree. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES that are shared are called DERIVED CHARACTERS
- -CLADOGRAMS BE DEM DIAGRAMS