Review Sheet Modern Middle East

  1. Zionists
    People who favored a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
  2. Canaan
    The ancient home of the Jews.
  3. Diaspora
    The global dispersal of the Jews.
  4. Balfour Declaration
    Balfour promoted the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
  5. Hamas
    Palestinian extremist group.
  6. PLO
    the Palestine Liberation Organization. Formed to push for the formation of a Palestinian state.
  7. Camp David Accords
    Ended 30 years of hostilities between Egypt and Israel. Signed by Begin (Israeli Prime Minister) and Sadat (Egyptian president).
  8. Oslo Peace Accords
    Yitzhak Rabin (Israeli Prime minister) granted the Palestinians self-rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. President Clinton brought them together.
  9. Road Map
    a peace plan Bush brought Sharon and Abbas together to work on.
  10. Hezbollah
    Lebanese group. Their goal is the complete destruction of the Israeli state.
  11. Disengagement Plan
    Israel left the Gaza Strip and other areas to be given to Palestinians for self-rule.
  12. Torah
    the first five books of the Hebrew Bible
  13. Quran (Koran)
    the holy book of Islam.
  14. Mosque
    An Islamic house of worship.
  15. Synagogue
    A Jewish place of worship.
  16. Nassar
    An Egyptian president. He created a short-lived United Arab Republic.
  17. Anwar Sadat
    Egyptian president. Sign the Camp David Accords.
  18. Yasir Arafat
    Chairman of the PLO, terrorist.
  19. Menachem Begin
    Israeli prime minister. He signed the Camp David Accords.
  20. Yitzak Rabin
    Prime Minister of Israel. Signed the Oslo Peace Accords.
  21. Benjamin Netanyahu
    Succeeded Rabin as prime minister. He opposed the Oslo Accords, attempted to keep it.
  22. President Carter
    Helped create the Camp David Accords.
  23. President Clinton
    Helped created the Oslo Peace Accords.
  24. Mahmoud Abbas
    First-ever prime minister.
  25. Hassan Nasrallah
    The current leader of the Hezbollah
  26. Persia
    present-day Iran
  27. Shah
    Mohammed Reza Pahlavi = the Shah. He fled Iran in response to popular unrest, caused by the Ayatollah. He came to the U.S. for treatment (caused the Hostage crisis).
  28. Ayatollah
    Iran religious leader
  29. Iran-Iraq War
    Hussein vs. Ayatollah Khomeini. Fought over the Shatt al-Arab waterway.
  30. Iranian Revolution
    The Shah was forced to leave Iran. The Ayatollah took over.
  31. Hejab
    head veil on women
  32. Iranian Hostage Crisis
    Iran's revolutionaries seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and held the people in it hostage. This was done as a result of the Shah being in the U.S. for medical treatment and us refusing to give him to Iran.
  33. Theocracy
    Religious leader is head of state and holds ultimate poltiical power.
  34. Shiite (Shia) Muslims and Sunni Muslims
    More Shiites than Sunnies in both Iraq and Iran. Shiites believe their leaders should be Muhammad's descendants. Sunnies believe their leaders should follow Muhammad's example.
  35. Farsi
    The official language of Iran, and Persian.
  36. Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi
    Fled Iran in response to popular unrest that ws caused by the Ayatollah.
  37. Iranian Nationalists
    Iranian Nationalists seized control of the U.S. Embassy and held the people in it hostage in exchange for the Shah, whom they did not receive.
  38. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeni
    Lived in exile. Had the Shah flee and then returned and established the Islamic Republic.
  39. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
    President of Iran. Made nuclear weapons.
  40. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
    Current supreme religious leader. He is the head of state and holds ultimate political power.
  41. Gulf War - Operation Desert Storm
    Iraq invaded Kuwait in an attempt to take over their oil fields.
  42. WMD's
    Weapons of mass destruction. Nuclear weapons and chemical weapons.
  43. Economic Sanctions
    The U.N. only allowed Iraq to sell a certain amount of oil each day. Oil-for-food program, allowed Iraq to sell oil in exchange for food and basic supplies.
  44. Operation Iraqi Freedom
    Invaded Iraq and removed Saddam Hussein from power.
  45. Saddam Hussein
    part of the Ba'ath Party. President of Iraq. Made WMD. Removed from power by the U.S. and other nations and killed.
  46. George H. Bush
    president while Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait.
  47. George W. Bush
    Helped create the road map.
  48. Jalal Talabani
    Iraqi president - head of state.
  49. Soviet Invasion in 1979
    Afghan communists overthrew the government. Soviet Union invaded and took over Afghanistan.
  50. Operation Enduring Freedom
    troops from U.S. are working to round up all al-Qaeda and Taliban merchants. We then created a temporary government.
  51. Al-Qaeda
    a world wide terrorist network.
  52. Taliban
    students of Islamic knowledge who came to power.
  53. Afghanistan languages
    Pasto and Dari
  54. Osama bin Laden
    Saudi terrorist spoke out in favor of attacks against the U.S. and our allies.
  55. Hamid Karzai
    appointed as president of the temporary government.
Card Set
Review Sheet Modern Middle East
Review Sheet Modern Middle East