quiz #1 first three days of neuroscience.txt

  1. true or false – the outer layer of the spinal cord is white matter
  2. what color is interlayer of the spinal cord and why
    Gray – it is not covered by myelin
  3. the white matter is subdivided into how many layers?
    three large areas– much like a telephone wire
  4. what is a primary role of the spinal cord?
    responsible for regulating many of our bodily functions throughout accending and descending pathways to and from the brain and intrinsic connections within the core itself
  5. what is a cross-section of the spinal cord look like?
    a butterfly
  6. where do the cell bodies lie in the spinal cord
    the Gray region
  7. what is in the white matter of the spinal cord
    axons that ascend and descend in the spinal cord
  8. true or false – the vertebral column grows faster than the spinal cord
  9. true or false – at birth the spinal cord ends at L2 – L3 level
  10. in an adult where does the spinal cord end at?
  11. define spondylolisthesis
    a forward slippage of the L5 vertebrae over the sacrum
  12. what is it conus medullaris
    the narrow end of the spinal cord
  13. what is cauda equina mean?
    the horses tail
  14. what is filum terminale
    terminal strand

    The conus medullaris terminates as a thin non-nervous strand of tissue
  15. where do the meninges terminate
    S2 vertebral level
  16. what are the three layers at the meninges?
    • dura mater
    • arachonoid
    • Pia Mater
  17. what does dura mater mean
    tough mother
  18. what does arachonoid mean?
    Spider like
  19. what does pia mater mean?
  20. true or false – the pia mater adheres to the spinal cord
  21. the subarachnoid space contains what kind of fluid
    cerebral spinal fluid
  22. what is a lumbar cistern?

    What is important about this site
    the space between the end of the spinal cord L2 – L3 and the end of the dura S2

    The site were lumbar puncture is performed to withdraw CSF
  23. true or false – when the filum terminale reaches the end of the dural sac, it pierces the dura picking up an outer layer dura, and attaches caudally to the coccyx
  24. the filum terminale ends and becomes
    the cocygeal ligament
  25. what is the role of the cocygeal ligament?
    serves to anchor/tether the spinal cord
  26. what structures anchor the spinal cord laterally?
    denticulate ligaments – tooth like extensions of the Pia
  27. how spinal nerves are there in the human body?
    31 pairs
  28. how many cervical spinal nerves are there
  29. true or false – C1 generally does not have a dorsal root, hence no C1 dermatome
  30. how many thoracic nerves are there?
  31. how many lumbar nerves are there
  32. how many sacral nerves are there
  33. true or false – there are always coccygeal nerve roots in the coccyx
    false – there may be or may not be
  34. true or false – the cervical nerve roots exit the intervertebral foramen at the level of there like named vertebrae
  35. true or false – the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral roots end below the vertebrae of the same level
  36. what are dermatomes?
    dermatomes are a patch of dermis that is supplied predominantly by single dorsal root level
  37. what is a myotome?
    is a muscle or muscle group that is supplied primarily by a single central root level
  38. where do sensory nerve fibers enter the spinal cord?
    the posterior roots
  39. what is found in the posterior/dorsal root ganglia?
    the cell bodies of sensory nerve fibers
  40. there are two enlargements in the spinal cord. What is this associated with?
    the brachial plexus and the lumbosacral plexus
  41. on the anterior surface of the spinal cord there is a deep grooves, what is the name of the structure?
    anterior median fissure
  42. the two shallow grooves that lie on either side of anterior median fissure are called________ ___________ _______
    anterior lateral sulcus
  43. what is a posterior intermediate sulcus?
    is it shallow groove between the posterior median and posterior lateral sulcus. It is located above T7
  44. in the gray region the cross-section looks like an _____ or _______ shape that stands out against the surrounding white matter
    H or butterfly
  45. how can the gray region to be divided?
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • lateral horns– seen only between T1-L2
  46. the anterior cell columns consist primarily of what?
    motor neurons
  47. true or false – the medial motor nucleus innervates axial group muscles
  48. what do the lateral motor nucleus innervate?
    muscles of the extremities
  49. in the anterior cell: the motor nerves that innervate extensor muscles lie more??????
  50. in the anterior cells column, the motor nerves of the flexors are located more???
  51. the posterior cell column, has three nuclear regions. What are they superficial to deep?
    • posteromarginal necleus
    • substantia gelatinosa
    • nucleus proprius
  52. what is it nucleus dorsalis?
    a structure that lies deep to the nucleus proprius that begins at C8-L2. It is located in the posterior cell column.
  53. what is another name for the nucleus dorsalis?
    Clarke's column
  54. the substantial gelatinosa is thought to have a role in processing pain and?
    temperature inputs from the periphery
  55. what is the role of the nucleus proprius?
    Functions in part to process proprioception
  56. what is the nucleus dorsalis associated with?
    the spinocerebellar pathways and receives input from large diameter afferent fibers associated with muscle and tendon sensory receptors (muscle spindles and gogli tendon organs)
  57. end at the top of page 10
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quiz #1 first three days of neuroscience.txt