DMU Thyroid Chapt 18

  1. Hormones produced by the thyroid
    • trilodothyronine (T3)
    • thyroxine (T4)
    • calcitonin
  2. # of lobes in the thyroid
    • normally 2, a left and right connected by the isthmus.
    • sometimes a pyramidal lobe that arises from the isthmus and tapers superiorly
  3. Demensions of the thyroid
    • adult:
    • 40-60mm long
    • 20-30 mm AP
    • 15-20mm wide

    • Children:
    • 20-30mm long
    • 12-15mm AP
    • 10-15mm wide
  4. structures neighboring the thyroid
    Anterior - strap muscles (sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternocleidomastoid)

    Posterior - carotid sheath (common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve), longus coli muscle (posterior and lateral)

    Medial - larynx, trachea, inferior constrictor of the pharynx, and esophagus

    Medial -
  5. sonographic aspects of the thyroid
    normal thyroid has a fine homogeneous echotexture that is more echogenic than the surrounding muscle structure

    ultrasound is used to define the anatomic structures within and surrounding the thyroid gland rather than to determine the physiology of the gland
  6. characteristics of ultrasound of a cyst
    anechoic areas, echogenic fluid, or moving fluid levels
  7. most common abnormality of the thyroid
  8. sonographic characteristics of thyroid cancer
    highly variable. any size, single or multiple, and can appear as a solid, partially cystic, or largely cystic mass

    usually hypoechoic relative to normal thyroid
  9. main sonographic sign of an adenoma
    peripheral halo
  10. demensions of the parathyroid glands
    flat and disc shaped

    less than 4mm
  11. location of parathyroid glands
    on the posterior medial surface of the thyroid gland.

    most people have 4 glands

    two lie posterior to each superior pole of the thyroid and the other two lie posterior to the inferior pole
  12. differential considerations of thyroiditis
  13. most common cause of thyroid disorders worldwide
    iodine deficiency
  14. most common thyroid cancer
    papillary carcinoma
  15. thyroglossal duct cyst
    congenital anomalies that appear in the midline of the neck anterior to the trachea
  16. brachial cleft cysts
    cystic formations usually located lateral to the thyroid gland
  17. cause of "thyroid inferno"
    Graves disease
  18. abnormal lymph node
    rapidly growing mass in the neck area

    nonvascular hypoechoic and lobulated mass
  19. normal lymph node
    smooth homogeneous hypoechoic cortex and echogenic fatty internal hilum
  20. causes of disorders of the parathyroid glands
    • adenoma
    • primary hyperplasia
    • rarely - carcinoma located in the parathyroid gland
Card Set
DMU Thyroid Chapt 18
DMU Thyroid quiz review chapt 18