Music Literature

  1. The Enlightenment
    • Individuality
    • Equality
    • Reason
    • Natural principles
  2. Eighteenth-Century Life
    • Vienna (Austria) was cosmopolitan center
    • Middle class interest in arts and music
  3. Classical
    • Haydn
    • Mozart
  4. Galant
    • Small motives
    • Short phrases
    • Larger periods
    • Simple harmony
    • Frequent cadences
  5. Empfindsamkeit
    • Sentimentality
    • CPE Bach
    • Chromaticism
    • Ornamentation
  6. Alberti Bass
    • Type of accompaniment
    • Repeating patterns
    • Simple harmonies
    • Does not distract from the melody
  7. Early Italian Comic Opera
    • Opera buffa
    • -dramma giocoso
    • Intermezzo
  8. Opera buffa
    • Italian comic opera
    • Sung throughout
    • Arias
    • -used short tuneful phrases
    • -accompanied by simple harmonies
    • -da capo form
    • AB (dc back to A)
  9. Intermezzo
    • Short comic musical interludes between the acts of a serious opera or play
    • La Serva Padrona by Pergolesi
    • "The Maid made Master"
  10. La Serva Padrona by Pergolesi, #101
    • Recitative with Basso Continuo
    • Obbligato Recitative with orchestral punctuation
    • Aria with orchestral accompaniment
    • -patter and repetition for comic effect
    • Set in present
    • Maid tricks her master into marriage
  11. Basso Continuo
    • Accompaniment
    • Bass line
    • Chords improv
  12. Recitative
    • Speech like
    • No repeat
  13. Opera Seria
    • Three-act operas
    • No comic scenes
    • No comic characters
    • Da capo form
    • Pietro Metastasio established
  14. Pietro Metastasio
    • Librettist-Libretto (writes lyrics)
    • DaCapo Aria
  15. Arias
    • Da capo form
    • Two-stanza texts are standard
  16. Cleofide, Act II, Scene 9, by Johann Adolf Hasse, #102
    • Opera Seria
    • "Digli ch'io son fedele" -da capo aria
    • -ritornello before A and B sections
    • -antecedent/consequent phrases
    • -runs and embellishments in vocal line
    • -line accompaniment
    • -for Faustina Bordoni, Hasse's bride
  17. Comic Opera
    • Italy: dramma giocoso
    • France: opera comique
    • Germany: singspeil
    • England: ballad opera
  18. Dramma giocoso
    • Italy
    • Cheerful drama
    • Replaced opera buffa
    • Ensemble finales: all characters are gradually brought on stage
  19. Opera comique
    • French light opera
    • Querelle des bouffons
    • -Jean-Jacques Rousseau: French is unsuitable for singing
    • -Other side supported French styles
  20. German Singspiel
    • inspired Ballad Opera in England
    • no recitative-spoke dialog
  21. Ballad Opera
    • English rebellion against foreign opera
    • popular tunes, usually ballads
    • few parody operatic airs
    • -The Beggar's Opera by John Gay
  22. The Beggar's Opera by John Gay, #103
    • ballad opera
    • stairized Italian opera
    • words written to existing folk and popular tunes
  23. Opera Reform
    • More natural
    • Christoph Willibald Gluck
    • -vowed to purge Italian opera of its abuses and excesses. Make the music serve the plot.
  24. Cluck the reformer
    • did not want singers' wishes or the da capo form to restrict the composer
    • wanted the overture to be an integral part
    • lessen the contrast between recitative and aria
    • beautiful simplicity
    • choruses more integral to action
  25. Orfeo ed Euridice, Act II, Scene I, by Cluck #104
    • opera seria
    • Calzabigi, librettist
    • music serves the words; little embellishment
    • orfeo-major; Furies- minor key
    • Pizzicato imitates lyre
    • harp arpeggio and string pizzicato depict furies
  26. Classical melody
    • Motivic and short phrases.
    • Regular phrase length.
  27. Classical rhythm
    • Clear meters except during recitative.
    • More rhythmic variety within a movement.
  28. Classical harmony
    • Major-minor.
    • Modulation as structural basis
  29. Classical texture
    Homophony with polyphony used within a work.
  30. Classical timbre
    • Instrumental music predominates.
    • Standardized orchestra without continuo.
  31. Classical forms
    • Sonata, rondo, theme and variations, ternary, and binary.
    • Multi-movement works.
  32. Classical genres
    • Older: Mass, oratorio, opera, solo concerto, and sonata.
    • New: Symphony, concerto, sonata, string quartet.
  33. The Enlightenment adhered closest to the following ideology:
  34. The central theme of the enlightenment was
    Reason, nature, and progress
  35. During the enlightenment, education was believed to be:
    The universal right for all people
  36. Freemasonry, a secret fraternal order which promoted humanitarian ideals and universal brotherhood, was founded in the early eighteenth century in the following city:
  37. During the mid- to late-eighteenth century, music publishers experienced a new market for published music influenced by:
    A growing middle class that desired accessable and desirable compositions
  38. During the early eighteenth century, women were welcomed as
    Amateur musicians
  39. The earliest public concerts were organized in
  40. In his treatise, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen, Johann Joachim Quantz argues that the ideal music
    Blended the best elements of national compositional styles
  41. The following composer and critic described the music of the eighteenth century as a "universal language"
    Michel-Paul-Guy de Chabanon
  42. The majority of public music for keyboard, chamber ensemble, and voice and keyboard during the mid-eighteenth century was intented to be performed by
    Amateurs for personal pleasure
  43. The St. Cecilia Society was responsible for organizing a private subscription concert series beginning in 1766 in this city
  44. Paris' Concert spirituel series was founded in 1725 by
    Anne Danican Philidor
  45. Allgemeine Geschichte der Musick, one of the earliest universal histories of music, was published by:
    Johann Nikolaus Forkel
  46. The galant style originated in
    Italian opera and concertos
  47. A General History of Music, published in four volumes between 1776 and 1789, was written by
    Charles Burney
  48. The empfindsam style is most closely associated with fantasias and slow movements composed by
    Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
  49. The following French philosopher defined the task of the arts as imitating and even perfecting nature in his treatise Les beaux-arts reduite a un meme principe
    Charles Batteux
  50. During the eighteenth century, the most common term for a new style of composition which contrasted the more complex style of Baroque counterpoint was
    Galant style
  51. The following style was characterzed by suprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythms, and rhapsodically free, speechlike melody
    empfindsam style
  52. In his treatise Klavierschule, the following composer describes the difference between contrapuntal and galant styles of composition
    Daniel Gottlob Turk
  53. The most thorough guide to melodic composition based on rhetorical principles appears in the second volume of the following treatise published by Heinrich Christoph Koch
    Cersuch einer Anleitung zur Composition
  54. Koch's treatise was written for
    amateurs who sought instruction in composition
  55. The following compositional device, frequently used in eighteenth-century keyboard music, breaks each of the underlying chords into a simple repeating pattern of short notes, producing a discreet chordal background
    Alberti bass
  56. During the eighteenth century, composers sought to
    Convey a variety of moods freely throughout the entire composition
  57. According to the text, the following era is regarded as the Classic period
  58. According to the text, "galan" and empfindsam should be thought of as
    Styles or trends curring during the Classic period
  59. The emergence of separate traditions of comic and serious opera in Italy appears around
  60. Full-length comic opera that was sung throughout and featured six or more characters was characteristic in which country during the early classic period?
  61. The plots of opera buffa most commonly centered on
    Ordinary people
  62. The intermezzo was intended to be performed
    Between the acts of a serious opera or play
  63. The intermezzo La serva padrona was composed by
    Giocanni Battista Pergolesi
  64. In the mid-eighteenth century, the following dramatist introduced serious, sentimental and woeful plots into the libretto of the comic opera
    Carlo Goldoni
  65. Oper seria received its standard form from the following poet
    Pietro Metastasio
  66. The following composer was acknowledged by his contemporaries as the great master of the opera seria
    Johann Adolf Hasse
  67. Until the mid-eighteenth century, the music used in opera comique was almost entirely
    popular tunes
  68. The first opera comique in which all the music was newly composed appear by the end of the
  69. The fashion for ballad operas in England peaked in the
  70. The librettist for The Beggar's Opera is
    John Gay
  71. The principal composer of Singspiel in the 1760s and '70s was
    Johann Adam Hiller
  72. The earliest comic operas in Germany were translations and adaptations of
    Ballad operas
  73. The argument for a reform of opera seria was articulated in the following composer's An Essay on the Opera:
    Francesco Algarotti
  74. The following composer aimed to combine the best of French tragedie en musique and Italian opera seria in his Ippolito et Aricia
    Tommaso Traetta
  75. The following composer, inspired by the reform movement in the 1750s, collaborated with poet Ranerio de Calzabigi to produce Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste
    Christoph Willibald Gluck
  76. The following approach to composing operas best describes the desire of compoers associated with the opera reform movement of the mid-eighteenth century
    The music, setting, poetry, acting, and lighting aided in advancing the plot.
  77. The following opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck was composed to prove that a good opera could be written to French words
    Iphigenie en Aulide
  78. A French strophic song on a sentimental text with a simple, expressive melody over a plain accompaniment is a
  79. The typical text of a British ballad was borrowed from
    A new poem commenting on recent events
  80. Most Lied of the mid-eighteenth century adhered to the following form
  81. The first collection of music entirely composed in North America was the
    New-England Psalm-Singer
  82. The following North American composer declared his independence from the accepted rules of counterpoint, writing that he had devised a set of rules better suited to his aims and method
    William Billings
  83. The first native-born American composer of chamber music was
    John Antes
  84. Pianoforte
    • Bartolomeo Cristofori
    • Florence 1700
  85. Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)
    • Son of Alessandro Scarlatti (vocal)
    • Spanish Court
    • Wrote 555 keyboard sonatas
  86. Sonata in D Major, K. 119, #106
    • Timbre: Harpsichord
    • Idions
    • -Guitar figurations
    • -Maraca rhythms
    • Phrases: Regular four measure phrases
    • Harmony: repeated dissonant chords
    • Binary form (AABB)
  87. Empfindsam Style
    • Two SOBs (Sons of Bach)
    • -Wilhelm Friedmann
    • -Carl Philipp Emanuel
    • Keyboard composer
    • Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753-62)
  88. Sonata IV in A Majore, #107
    • CPE Bach
    • Mvt. II
    • -Harmony: chromatic
    • -Rhythm: Scotch snaps
    • -Ornamentation: grace notes, appogiature, mordents
  89. The Eighteenth Century Orchestra
    • 25-35 players
    • Strings: Violin 1&2, Viola, Cello, Double Bass
    • WW: one flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons. Doubled strings
    • Brass: 2 horns, sometimes trumpets
    • Sometimes percussion
  90. Early Symphonies
    • Sinfonia: evolved from Italian opera overtures
    • -three movements
    • -fourth movement added between 2 and 3
  91. Symphony in F Major by Sammartini, #108
    • Mvt I
    • Form: Monothematic
    • -Binary
    • Characteristics
    • -hammerstrokes
    • -scaler melody
  92. German Symphonic Composers
    • Johann Stamitz
    • -Mannheim orchestra
    • -dynamic range
    • -"Mannheim crescendo"
  93. Sinfonia a 8 in E-flat Major, #109
    • "La melodia ermanica", no. 3
    • -Mvt. i
    • Charcteristics
    • -Hammerstrokes
    • -Mannheim crescendo
    • -violin sighing motif
    • -oboe horn motif
  94. Johann Christian Bach
    • composers of symphonies and piano concerti
    • 40 keyboard concertos (1763-1777)
  95. Concerto for Harpsichord or Piano and Strings in E-flat Major, #110
    • Double exposition Sonata form
    • -First exposition all in tonic
    • -Second exposition modulates to dominant
    • Recapulation all in tonic
    • -no secondary theme
    • Orchestra plays transitions and reinforces cadences
  96. Listening: Pergolesi La Serva Padrona
    • Genre Intermezzo
    • Style Recitative
    • Accompaniment: Basso Continuo
  97. Listening Pergolesi La Serva Padrona
    • Style: Aria
    • Accompaniment: Orchestra
    • Patter and repetition are used for comic affects
  98. Listening Domenico Scarlatti Sonata in D Major
    • Timbre: Harpsichord
    • Form: Binary
    • Idioms used: 1. Guitar figurations 2. Maraca Rhythms
  99. Listening CPE Bach, Sonata IV in A Major
    • Harmony: Chromatic
    • Rhythmic Device: Scotch snaps
    • Ornamentation: 1. Grace notes 2. Appogiatura 3. Mordents
  100. Listening Stamitz, Sinfonia a 8 in E-flat Major
    Characteristics: 1. Hammerstrokes 2. Mannheim Crescendo
  101. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
  102. Esterhazy
    • Prince Paul Anton of Hungary
    • Prince Nicholas
    • -baryton music
  103. Esterhazy duties
    • Compose
    • Conduct
    • Train and supervise
    • Maintain instruments
    • Weekly concerts
    • -operas and symphonies
  104. Early Symphonies
    3 movement form
  105. Early Symphonies
    • Symphony No 6 Le Matin
    • Symphony No 7 Le Midi
    • Symphony No 8 Le Soir
  106. Sturm und Drang
    • Symphony No. 56 in C Major
    • -Encompasses a broad emotional range
  107. Paris Symphonies (82-87)
    • Prince Anton disbanded orchestra
    • Symphonies commissioned for the Concerts de la Loge Olympique in Paris
  108. London Symphonies (93-104)
    • Commissioned in 1790
    • Two concert tours in London
  109. Symphony No 92 in G Major
    • "The Oxford" - 1789
    • -Performed at the awarding of an honorary Doctorate at Oxford in 1791
  110. Symphony No 92 Mvt. 1
    Sonata Form (#112)
    • Slow instruction in G
    • Exposition
    • -Theme 1 in G
    • -Transition
    • -Theme 2 in D (opens same as T1)
    • -Closing
    • Development
    • Recapitulation in G
    • -Theme 1
    • -Transition
    • -Theme 2
    • -Closing
    • Coda
Card Set
Music Literature
Music Literature after 1750