MCAT O Chem 1

  1. what are the prefixes for the alkanes, from 1 to 12?
    meth-, eth-, prop-, but-, pent-, hex-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec-, undec, dodec.
  2. what are the 5 steps to name alkanes (IUPAC)?
    • 1.find the longest chain
    • 2.number the chain so the lowest set of numbers is obtained for the substituents
    • and alphabetize the substituents
    • 4.assign # to each substituents
    • 5.complete the name
  3. in case of an "en-ol" which carbon receives the lowest number?
    the carbon attached to the alcohol group
  4. what is a diol?
    a molecule with 2 OH groups
  5. in case of an "en-one" which carbon gets the lowest number?
    the carbonyl carbon
  6. what type of compound does a -COOH group denote?
    carboxylic acid
  7. what are the common names of the following:
    methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid
    formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid
  8. name the prefix and suffix of the following:
    1.carboxylic acid
    3.acyl halide
    • 1.carboxy- / -oic acid
    • 2.alkoxycarbonyl- / -oate
    • 3.halocarbonyl- / -oyl halide
    • 4.amido- /-amide
    • 5.cyano-/ -nitrile
    • 6.oxo- / -al
    • 7.oxo- / -one
    • 8.hydroxy- / -ol
    • 9.sulfhydryl- / -thiol
    • 10.amino- / -amine
    • 11.alkoxy- / -ether
    • 12.alkylthio- / -sulfide
    • 13.nitro-
    • 14.azido-/ -azide
    • 15.diazo-
  9. what is a structural isomer?
    same chemical formula but different atomic arrangement
  10. what is stereoisomers?
    compounds that differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms.
  11. order the following conformations of n-butane according to energy levels (low to high): gauche, anti, eclipsed, total eclipsed.
    anti, gauche, eclipsed, totally eclipsed
  12. what are geometric isomers?
    molecules differ with respect to the spatial relationship of substituents around a double bond
  13. what is a chiral molecule?
    it is not superimposable upon its mirror image
  14. what are enantiomers?
    chiral molecules that are non superimposable mirror images of each other
  15. what is a dextrorotatory (+) compound?
    it rotates polarized light to the right (clockwise)
  16. what is a racemic mixture?
    it contains equal amounts of both enantiomers
  17. what are diastereomers?
    stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other
  18. how does increasing molecular weight affect the boiling point and melting point of an alkane?
    increase them
  19. how does increased branching affect the boiling points of an alkane
    lowers it
  20. what are 3 steps of halogenation reaction?
    initiation, propagation, termination
  21. how many steps are involved in Sn1 rxn? what are they
    2 steps. first molecule dissociates into a carbocation and a leaving group, then nucleophile combines with the carbocation.
  22. how can Sn1 rxn be increased
    • 1.stabilizing the carbocation by increasing substitution and using a highly polar solvent
    • 2.use a better leaving group (weak base)
  23. which type of rxn is favored (Sn1 or Sn2):
    i.polar protic solvent
    ii.polar aprotic solvent
    iii.methyl or 1o alkyl halide
    iv.3o alkyl halide
    • i.Sn1
    • ii.Sn2
    • iii.Sn2
    • iv.Sn1
  24. which form of alkene has a higher melting point (cis or trans)
    trans, due to its symmetry
  25. which form of an alkene has a higher boiling point (cis or trans)
    cis, due to its polarity
  26. what is Huckel's rule?
    an aromatic compound has (4n+2) pi electrons, where n is an integer
  27. are the following activating or deactivating? o/p director or m director?
    1. COOH
    5.F, Cl, Br, I
    10. CH3
    • m
    • 2.act/ o-p
    • 3.act/ o-p
    • m
    • o-p
    • m
    • 7.act/ o-p
    • m
    • 9.act/ o-p
    • 10. act/ o-p
  28. do alcohols have higher or lower boiling point than analogous alkanes? why?
    higher, because alcohol can hydrogen bond
  29. name 3 types of rxn to synthesize alcohol
    addition, substitution, recduction
  30. how does boiling points of an aldehyde or ketone compare with its analogous alkane? alcohol?
    • higher than alkane
    • lower than alcohol
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MCAT O Chem 1
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