Types of Chemical Agents

  1. Halogens
    highly reactive
  2. Chlorine (halogen)
    • gas or inorganic/inorganic form
    • Widely used in municipal water
    • Very effective against gram positive bacteria, virus, fungi
  3. Iodine (halogen)
    more reactive and germicidal
  4. Phenols
    • very active against Gram positives
    • Reduced activity in presence of organic matter
    • Cresol (Creosote)
    • Hexylresorcinol – mouthwash
    • Lysol
  5. Heavy Metals
    • very reactive with proteins by disrupting enzymes
    • Not a sporicidal agent
  6. Mercury (heavy metal)
    • Mercuric chloride
    • Mercurochrome
    • Thimerosal
  7. Copper (heavy metal)
    Copper sulfate – used in swimming pools, water supplies
  8. Silver
    Silver nitrate – 1% solution placed in eyes of newborns to kill
  9. Alcohol
    • usually in the form of 70% ethanol
    • this concentration is the most effective
    • Generally effective against bacteria, not spores
  10. Formaldehyde
    • Typically in the form of formalin (which is a 37% formaldehyde concentration)
    • Kills bacteria and inactivates viruses
  11. Ethylene oxide
    • Discovery and use allowed plastic Petri dishes and syringes to be sterilized without harm
    • Excellent penetration and sporicidal activity
    • Very toxic, but cheap way to use plastic
  12. Hydrogen Peroxide
    • Common agent for rinsing wounds, scrapes, and abrasions
    • H2O2 + catalase =“superoxide” radicals
  13. Soaps
    • hydrophobic
    • Mixture of fatty acids combined with potassium or sodium hydroxideMechanically removes microorganisms
  14. Chemotherapeutic Agents
    Generally refers to chemical substance that has been synthesized or result of modification of a pre-existing chemical
  15. Antibiotics
    Substance that is anatural product of a microorganism (or some other animal source)
Card Set
Types of Chemical Agents
Types of Chemical Agents