history semester 1

  1. middle ages
  2. monarchs
    heredity ruler
  3. renaissance
    era of art, lit. and and education
  4. lineage
  5. chris. columbus
    spanish who discovered america
  6. cash crops
    easily marketed
  7. plantations
    large farm or estate
  8. conquistadors
    spanish conquerers
  9. charter
    doc. defining conditions of a corp.
  10. house of burgesses
    assembly of reps in colonial vir.
  11. bacons rebellion
    unsuccessful uprising by frontiers in vir. against gov in jamestown.
  12. indentured servants
    a person working for their stay in america
  13. mayflower compact
    agreement for a gov.
  14. salem witch trials
    salem, mass
  15. anne hutchinson
    founded quackers
  16. proprietary colony
    colonies granted self gov.
  17. mercantilism
  18. middle passage
    slave route to US
  19. sugar act, stamp act, boycott
  20. columbian exchange
    dramatically widespread exchange of the animals, plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres
  21. joint-stock company
    type of corporation or partnership involving two or more individuals that own shares of stock in the company (to pay off debt)
  22. middle colonies
    • middle region of the Thirteen British Colonies in Northern America. Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware.
    • Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region.
  23. quakers
    A central belief was that ordinary people could have a direct experience of the eternal Christ
  24. salutary neglect
    undocumented, though long-standing, British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain
  25. great awakening
    a religious revival in American religious history
  26. albany plan of union
    proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 in Albany, New York. It was an early attempt at forming a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes
  27. militia
    a military force composed of ordinary citizens
  28. treaty of paris 1763
    ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War
  29. proclamation of 1763
    purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
  30. sugar act
    a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain
  31. quartering act
    ensure that British soldiers had adequate housing and provisions
  32. stamp act
    a law enacted by government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents
  33. townshend acts
    to raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would be independent of colonial rule, to create a more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations, to punish the province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act, and to establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.[
  34. boston massacre
    an incident that led to the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British redcoats on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War
  35. boston tea party
    after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor.
  36. intolerable acts
    or the Coercive Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain's colonies in North America.
  37. 1st continential congress
    Congress met briefly to consider options, including an economic boycott of British trade; publishing a list of rights and grievances; and petitioning King George for redress of those grievances
  38. battle of lexington and concorde
    Colonial victory; start of the American Revolutionary War
  39. revolitionary war
    • Result
    • Treaty of Paris

    • Territorialchanges
    • Britain recognizes independence of the United States, cedes East Florida, West Florida, and Minorca to Spain and Tobago to France.Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Britain
  40. french and indian war
    • Result
    • Treaty of Paris

    • Territorialchanges
    • France cedes Canada to Great Britain, retaining Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and transfers Louisiana to Spain; Spain cedes Florida to Great Britain
  41. 2nd continential congress
    managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence
  42. olive branch petition
    affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict. The petition was rejected, and in August 1775 the colonies were formally declared in rebellion by the Proclamation of Rebellion.[1]
  43. enlightenment
    "age of reason"
  44. natural rights
    life liberty and the pursuit of happiness
  45. john adams
    the second President of the United States (1797–1801). A New England Yankee, he was deeply read and represented Enlightenment values promoting republicanism. A conservative Federalist, he was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States.
  46. abigail adams
    "remember the ladies"
  47. battle of bunker hill
    ...during revolution

    • Result
    • British Pyrrhic victory[1]

    • Territorialchanges
    • British capture Charlestown peninsula
  48. loyalists
    American colonists who remained loyal to the Kingdom of Great Britain
  49. mercenaries
    a person who takes part in an armed conflict, who is not a national or a party to the conflict
  50. battle of trenton
    • Location
    • Trenton, New Jersey

    • Result
    • Decisive American victory
  51. battle of saratoga
    • Location
    • Saratoga County, New York

    • Result
    • First battle: British victorySecond battle: Decisive American victoryBritish surrender October 17
  52. blockade
    an effort to cut off food, supplies, war materiel or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally
  53. inflation
    rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time
  54. battle of yorktown
    ...last major battle of rev.

    • Location
    • Yorktown, Virginia

    • Result
    • Decisive Franco-American victory
  55. treaty of paris 1783
    formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America, which had rebelled against British rule
  56. articles of confederation
    the first constitution of the United States and specified how the Federal government was to operate
  57. legislatice branch
    kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws.[
  58. executive branch
    the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy
  59. judicial branch
    the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state
  60. constitution
    set of laws
  61. republic
    a form of government in which the people or some portion thereof retain supreme control over the government
  62. shay's rebellion
    armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts
  63. annapolis convention
    an Assembly of the Counties of Maryland that functioned as the colony's revolutionary government
  64. james madison
    • an American politician and political philosopher who served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
    • He was the principal author of the US Constitution
  65. george washington
    the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1797. As the leader of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, he led the American victory over Great Britain
  66. general cornwallis amend
    British Army officer and colonial administrator
  67. constitutional convention
    to address problems in governing the United States of America,
  68. virginia plan
    the idea of population-weighted representation
  69. new jersey plan
    an alternate plan that would have given one vote per state for equal representation under one legislative body
  70. great compromise
    an agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It proposed a bicameral legislature, resulting in the current United States Senate and House of Representatives
  71. 3/5 compromise
    three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes
  72. separation of powers
    the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches
  73. checks and balances
    allow for a system based regulation that allows one branch to limit another
  74. electoral college
    the popularly elected representatives (electors) who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States
  75. federalists
    • supporting ratification of the proposed Constitution of the United States between 1787 and 1789. The Federalist Papers are documents associated with their movement.
    • Statesmen and public figures supporting the administrations of Presidents George Washington (1789–1797) and John Adams
  76. anti federalists
    that the central governing authority of a nation should be equal or inferior to, but not having more power than, its sub-national states (state government).
  77. ratify
    the approval by the principal of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal.
  78. bill of rights
    to protect those rights against infringement by the government
  79. inauguration
    a formal ceremony to mark the beginning of a leader's term of office
  80. cabinet
    a body of high ranking members of the government, typically representing the executive branch
  81. Alexander Hamilton
    first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, economist, and political philosopher. Aide-de-camp to General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War,
  82. Aaron Burr
    the third Vice President of the United States (1801–1805), under President Thomas Jefferson. Burr is mainly remembered as the man who killed Alexander Hamilton in the famous 1804 duel.
  83. Thomas jefferson
    the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence
  84. Benjamin franklin
    one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat
  85. Washington, dc
    capital of the US
  86. tariff
    tax levied on imports or exports
  87. strict construction
    a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation
  88. loose construction
    a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that does NOT limit or restrict judicial interpretation
  89. Whiskey rebellion
    uprising from an excise tax on whiskey that was a central grievance of the westerners
  90. jays treaty
    a treaty between the United States and Great Britain that is credited with averting war,[2] solving many issues left over from the American Revolution and the Treaty of Paris of 1783,[3] and opening ten or more years of mostly peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars
  91. jeffersonian republicans
    a nationwide party to counteract the Federalists
  92. political parties
    a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office
  93. xyz affair
    a diplomatic event that strained relations between France and the United States
  94. virginia and kentucky resolutions
    political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures resolved not to abide by Alien and Sedition Acts.
  95. nullification
    a legal theory that a U.S. State has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional
  96. alien and sedition acts
    the acts were designed to protect the United States from alien citizens of enemy powers and to prevent seditious attacks from weakening the government
  97. bureaucracy
    the combined organizational structure, procedures, protocols, and set of regulations in place to manage activity
  98. judicial review
    the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review, and possible invalidation, by the judiciary
  99. john marshall
    an American jurist and statesman who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. Marshall was Chief Justice of the United States,
  100. marbury v. madison
    • a landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.
    • This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered. Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents, but the court, with John Marshall as Chief Justice, denied Marbury's petition, holding that the part of the statute upon which he based his claim, the Judiciary Act of 1789, was unconstitutional
  101. land act of 1804
    refined provisions for the purchase of U.S. public land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi river
  102. louisiana purchase
    the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,800 square miles of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. The U.S. paid 15 million dollars
  103. lewis and clark
    led the first United States expedition (1804–1806) to the Pacific Coast
  104. embargo
    the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country, in order to isolate it
  105. treaty of greenville
    put an end to the Northwest Indian War
  106. assimilation
    blending or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society
  107. battle of tippecanoe
    • Location
    • Near modern Battle Ground, Indiana

    • Result
    • United States victory
  108. tecumseh
    a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812
  109. William henry harrison
    ninth President of the United States, an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office
  110. war of 1812
    • a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire.[nb 2]
    • The Americans declared war in 1812 for a number of reasons, including a desire for expansion into the Northwest Territory, trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, and the humiliation of American honour
  111. treaty of ghent
    ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  112. hartford convention
    event spanning from December 15, 1814–January 4, 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed.
  113. battle of new orleans
    the final major battle of the War of 1812

    • Location
    • About five miles (8 km) south of New Orleans on the grounds of Chalmette Plantation

    • Result
    • American victory; British troops and fleet withdraw from Louisiana
  114. andrew jackson
    the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). He was the military governor of pre-admission Florida (1821) and the commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815) and is an eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy
  115. depression
    dip in economy
  116. missouri compromise
    an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories
  117. pinckney treaty
    established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
  118. cede (cessesion)
    commonly refers to land transferred by treaty
  119. industrial rev.
    major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times
  120. interchangeable parts
    • parts that are, for practical purposes, identical
    • eli whitney, cotton gin
    • assembly line
  121. eli whitney
    inventor of the cotton gin
  122. cotton gin
    a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job previously done by hand
  123. erie canal
    a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
  124. turnpikes
    built road for which a driver pays a toll (a fee) for use.
  125. robert fulton
    an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboa
  126. 2nd great awakening
    a religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States, which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals
  127. denominations
    division of one religion into separate groups, sects, schools of thought
  128. spirituals
    religious songs which were created by enslaved African people in America.
  129. market rev.
    a drastic change in the manual labor system originating in south (but was soon moved to the north) and later spread to the entire world
  130. manufacturing
    the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale.
  131. free enterprise system
    an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for a private profit
  132. industrialization
    the process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one
  133. urban
    related to cities
  134. labor union
    an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions
  135. turners rebellion
    Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55-65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by slave uprisings in the South
  136. mccullough v. maryland
    state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable to all banks not chartered in Maryland, the Second Bank of the United States was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law was recognized in the court's opinion as having specifically targeted the U.S. Bank.
  137. gibbons v. ogden
    a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
  138. dartmouth college v. woodward
    a landmark United States Supreme Court case dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations
  139. monroe doctrine
    stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention
  140. john c. CALHOUN (yicg is held on that street <3)
    best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as a positive good, for his promotion of minority rights, and for pointing the South toward secession from the Union.
  141. henry clay
    represented Kentucky in both the Senate and the House of Representatives, where he served as Speaker. He also served as Secretary of State from 1825 to 1829.
  142. corrupt bargain
    widely believed that Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at the time, convinced Congress to elect Adams, who then made Clay his Secretary of State
  143. tariff of 1825
    a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods
  144. partonage
    the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
  145. indian removal act
    paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
  146. train of tears
    the forced relocation and movement of Native Americans from the present-day United States
  147. transcendentalists
    go beyond to know the world with your 5 senses
  148. henry davod thoreau
    • lived at walden pond
    • transcendentalist
  149. ralph waldo emerson
    father of transcendentalism
  150. temperance movement
    a social movement urging reduced use of alcoholic beverages
  151. segregated
    restricted to one group
  152. utopian communities
    "perfect societies"
  153. dorothea dix
    an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums
  154. abolitionist movement
    a movement to end slavery
  155. emancipation
    a broad term used to describe various efforts to obtain political rights or equality,
  156. fredrick douglas
    • author of "my bondage and my freedom"
    • educated slave
  157. sojourner truth
    • author of "aint i a woman?"
    • activist for slaves and women
  158. underground railroad
    passage of slaves to freedom
  159. gag rule
    that slavery would not be talked about in congress
  160. seneca falls convention
    an early and influential women's rights convention
  161. elizabeth stanton
    an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement
  162. suffrage
    the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right
  163. naturalization
    the acquisition of citizenship and nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born.
  164. oregon trail
    the journey of moving westward
  165. battle of the alamo
    davy crockett

    • Location
    • San Antonio, Texas

    • Result
    • Mexican victory
  166. sam houston
    governor of TX
  167. manifest destiny
    American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean
  168. annexed
    to attach, append, or add
  169. james k. polk
    the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849). He later lived in and represented the state of Tennessee
  170. john tyler
    • the tenth President of the United States (1841–1845)
    • A longtime Democratic-Republican, Tyler was nonetheless elected Vice President on the Whig ticket
  171. mexican war
    an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
  172. treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
    the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States[1][2] to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico City, that ended the Mexican-American War
  173. gadsden purchase
    a 29,670-square-mile region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that was purchased by the United States in a treaty signed by James Gadsden, the American ambassador to Mexico
  174. wilmot proviso
    would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future
  175. cali. gold rush
    • "49ers"
    • 300,000 rushed to cali. in search of gold
  176. battle of bull run
    • manasses
    • south
    • mcdowell (n)
  177. battle of shiloh
    • pittsurg
    • north
    • grant-n
    • buell-s
  178. 2nd bull run
    • manasses
    • south
    • pope-n
    • lee-s
  179. battle of antietam
    • sharpsburg
    • bloodiest battle of the civil war
    • draw, north claims victory
    • lee-s
    • mcclellan-n
  180. battle of gettysburg
    • gettysburg
    • 2x as many men die in this battle than the whole rev. war
    • north
    • lee- s
    • meade-n
  181. fort sumner
    • charleston harbor
    • started war
    • south
    • anderson-n
    • beauregard-s
  182. fredricksburg
    • virginia
    • south
    • lee-s
    • burside-n
  183. vicksburg
    • vicksburg
    • north
    • grant
  184. cancellorsvilles
    • NE virginia
    • south
    • jackson-s
    • hooker-n
  185. wilderness
    • virginia
    • tie, north claims victory
    • grant
  186. atlanta
    • atlanta
    • north\
    • sherman-n
    • sheridan-n
  187. spotslvania
    • penn.
    • north
    • grant
  188. petersburg
    • petersburg, vir
    • 60 day battle
    • north
    • lee
    • grant
  189. cold harbor
    • virginia
    • south
    • grant
    • lee
  190. **appamottax courthouse (not a battle)
    • virginia
    • lee surrenders to grant
    • north
Card Set
history semester 1