Immunology 2

  1. What function do macrophages serve?
    • Very versatile - 12 to 15% of WBC's
    • Phagocytic
    • Can initiate the immune response.
  2. Which type of WBC's are phagocytic? What percentage of WBC's do they comprise?
    • Neutrophils and macrophages (excluding eosinophils).
    • 75% of all WBC's.
    • Therefore it must be an efficient form of defense.
  3. If phagocytosis is so effective, why do our body's need specialized immune cells (an expensive process)?
    • 1.) Phagocytosis is a slow process and therefore has a max limit
    • 2.) Macs' & neuts' have other responsibilities (cellular debris)
    • 3.) Neuts's have a life span of about one day
  4. True or False?
    Compared to other forms of defense, the immune response is energy expensive.
  5. What percentage of WBC's do immune cells comprise?
    About 20%.
  6. What are the two ways an invading organism can enter our body?
    • 1.) Through a breach in the skin
    • 2.) Across a mucous membrane
  7. Once inside your body, what two systems provide widespread transportation?
    • 1.) Vascular system
    • 2.) Lymphatic system
  8. In what order does the body act against invading microbes?
    • 1.) Innate defenses
    • 2.) Complete phagocytosis
    • 3.) Immune response
  9. List the 9 various innate defenses covered in class.
    • 1.) Skin (barrier)
    • 2.) Mucous membranes (barrier)
    • 3.) Sweat (antimicrobial)
    • 4.) Saliva (antimicrobial)
    • 5.) pH of stomach
    • 6.) pH of blood
    • 7.) Normal flora of intestines
    • 8.) Electrolyte levels in blood
    • 9.) Protease enzymes and inhibitors
  10. In regards to innate defenses, which exist in the blood chemistry?
    • 1.) pH
    • 2.) protease enzymes and inhibitors
    • 3.) electrolyte balance
  11. Briefly describe function of proteases and their inhibitors.
    • Proteases break down dead cells and invading microbes.
    • Their inhibitors keep them from destroying healthy body cells, but not microbes.
  12. What are the 3 types of immune cells?
    • 1.) T-cells
    • 2.) B-cells
    • 3.) NK cells

    (macrophages and eosinophils are in gray area).
  13. If innate defenses fail to eliminate an invading organism, what is our next response?
    Phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages (back-up to neuts').
  14. What is the significant goal of phagocytic cells?
    To completely eliminate the invader (not to limit proliferation).
  15. True or False?
    Phagocytosis is a fairly specific process.
  16. How does a neutrophil recognize an invading microbe?
    Its surface is covered in many different types of receptors that recognize complimentary structures on microbes/debris/dead cells.
  17. If phagocytosis fails, __________ or _________ cells initiate an immune response.
    • 1.) Macrophages
    • 2.) Dendritic cells

    (also, some B-cells can intiate a response as well).
  18. "What" makes the decision that the innate defenses and phagocytosis have failed?
    • The immune monitoring system.
    • It monitors # and kind of invaders present and WBC's available.
  19. Where is the IMS located?
    • No one knows for sure.
    • Perhaps the hypothalamus?
  20. Once the IMS has determined that all initial defenses have failed, what is the invading microbe now classified as?
    An immunogen / antigen.
  21. Define immunogen / antigen.
    "Anything (cell or molecule) that can initiate an immune response in an immunologically competant individual."
  22. What are some examples of immunological incompetency?
    • 1.) HIV/AIDS patients
    • 2.) Cancer patients
    • 3.) Transplant recipients
  23. True or False?
    Every human being is immunologically incompetent relative to some type or family of immunogen.
    • True.
    • - A genetically determined condition.
  24. What type of cells comprise the category of dendritic cells?
    Specialized cells of the spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT.
  25. True or False?
    Unmodifed phagocytosis results in the complete (100%) elimination of a type of invader.
  26. What system is responsible for recognizing that complete elimination of an invading microbe cannot be accomplished by phagocytosis?
    The Immune Monitoring System.
  27. When an immune response is needed, to what cells does the IMS send a signal?
    • 1.) Macrophages
    • 2.) Dendritic cells
    • 3.) B-cells?
  28. What message do the macrophages and dendritic cells receive from the IMS?
    To modify the phagocytosis process and save tiny pieces of any immunogen they come into contact with.
  29. What from the immunogen will the macrophages and dendritic cells save?
    A piece of genetically controlled protein or glycoprotein from the surface of the microbe or molecule --> an IDP.
  30. What does IDP stand for?
    Immuno-dominant peptide.
  31. True or False?
    An IDP is another term for an epitope?
    • False.
    • A single IDP may contain multiple epitopes.
  32. How many monomers make up an IDP? An epitope?
    • 1.) An IDP is made up of 20-30 amino acids or simple sugars
    • 2.) An epitope is made up of 3-8 amino acids or simple sugars
  33. What is the significance/function of our body's recognition of epitopes?
    It is our body's way of determining the difference between "self" and "foreign."
Card Set
Immunology 2
Immunology 2