Med Terms Ch. 7 (160-173 top) Quiz 1

  1. circulatory system consists of 2 systems
    • 1. cardiovascular
    • 2. lymphatic
  2. context: 2 systems in the circulatory system
    cardio vascul ar
    • cardi/o = heart
    • vascul/o = vessel
    • heart and blood vessels
  3. context: 2 systems in the circulatory system
    structures involved in the conveyance of the fluid lymph
  4. homeo stasis
    • home/o = sameness
    • -stasis = controlling
    • equilibrium of the internal environment of the body
  5. how do body cells get their constant supply of food, oxygen, and other substances?
    blood circulates through the heart and blood vessels, carrying substances and taking away waste and carbon dioxide
  6. 6 functions of the cardiovascular system
    • 1. supplies body cell with needed substances
    • 2. transports waste products for disposal
    • 3. maintains the acid-base balance of the body
    • 4. prevents hemorrhage through blood clotting
    • 5. protects against disease
    • 6. helps regulate body temperature
  7. coron/o
  8. sub-
  9. 2 major components of the vascular network
    • 1. arteries (red)
    • 2. veins (blue)
  10. the flow of blood rich in oxygen
    heart --> arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries (one cell thick, exchange occurs) --> venules --> veins --> venae cavae --> heart
  11. non-oxygenated blood flow
    heart --> lungs (get oxygen) --> heart
  12. how many chambers in a human heart?
  13. the chambers in the human heart
    • 1. right atrium
    • 2. right ventricle
    • 3. left atrium
    • 4. left ventricle
  14. what prevents backflow of blood when the heart contracts?
  15. atrio ventricul ar valves
    valves between the atria and and ventricles
  16. 2 types of atrioventricular valves
    • 1. tricuspid (right)
    • 2. bicuspid/mitral (left)
  17. cuspid
    small flaps that make up the atrioventricular valves
  18. 2 types of semilunar valves
    • 1. pulmonary valve
    • 2. aortic valve
  19. context: semilunar valves
    pulmonary valve
    regulates the flow of blood to the lungs
  20. context: semilunar valves
    aortic valve
    regulates the flow of blood into the aorta
  21. aorta
    • largest artery of the body
    • the artery by which blood leaves the heart to be routed throughout the body
  22. -al, -ic
    pertaining to
  23. arter/o
  24. extra-
  25. intra-
  26. lymphat/o
  27. -ole
    little. you might just be "-ole", but your personality could be as big as the universe :D
  28. 2 type of blood circulation
    • 1. pulmonary circulation
    • 2. systemic circulation
  29. context: 2 types of blood circulation
    pulmonary circulation
    • 1. oxygen-deficient blood to lungs via pulmonary arteries
    • 2. oxygenated blood to heart via pulmonary veins
  30. context: 2 types of blood circulation
    systemic circulation process
    (1) oxygen-rich blood pumped from heart --> (2) aorta --> (3) routed to arteries --> (4) branch to arterioles --> (5) branch to capillaries --> (6) exchange at tissues of body --> (7) venules --> (8) veins --> (9) heart via veins called superior and inferior venae cavae
  31. -ar, -ary, -ic
    pertaining to
  32. bi-
    two. wish all words were this simple?
  33. pulmon/o
  34. semi-
  35. tri-
    three. like three's company too :D
  36. peri card ium
    • peri- = around
    • cardi/o = heart
    • -ium = membrane
    • a sac made up of a double membrane that encloses the heart
  37. 3 layers of the heart
    • 1. endocardium (innermost)
    • 2. myocardium (muscular middle layer of heart)
    • 3. epicardium (outermost)
  38. epicardium
    • aka visceral pericardium
    • innermost layer of the pericardium
  39. endocardium
    • endo- = inside
    • the lining inside the heart
  40. myocardium
    • my/o = muscle
    • heart muscle itself
    • thickest tissue of the heart and is composed of muscle fibers that contract (squeeze of blood)
  41. coronary arteries
    blood vessels that supply oxygen to the heart
  42. two main coronary arteries
    • 1. left coronary artery
    • 2. right coronary artery
  43. coronary
    • encircling, in the manner of a crown
    • coronary arteries encircle the heart in a crownlike fashion
  44. cardi/o, coron/o
  45. endo-
  46. fibr/o
    fiber, fibrous
  47. my/o
  48. peri-
  49. viscer/o
  50. 5 types of blood vessels
    • 1. arteries
    • 2. arterioles (smaller arteries)
    • 3. veins
    • 4. venules (smaller veins)
    • 5. capillaries
  51. blood pressure
    pressure exerted by the blood on the wall of an artery
  52. blood pressure readings
    • 2 numbers
    • 1. first # = maximum pressure on the artery
    • 2. second # = amount of pressure that still exists when the heart is relaxed/not contracting
  53. context: combining forms: blood vessels
    angi/o, vas/o*, vascul/o
    • vessel
    • *sometimes means vas deferens
  54. context: combining forms: blood vessels
  55. context: combining forms: blood vessels
    arter/o, arteri/o
  56. context: combining forms: blood vessels
  57. context: combining forms: blood vessels
    yellow fatty plaque. GROSSS. remember no "r"
  58. context: combining forms: blood vessels
    phleb/o, ven/o
  59. context: combining forms: blood vessels
  60. cardiomyopathy
    • cardi/o = heart
    • my/o = muscle
    • -pathy = disease
    • general diagnostic term that designates primary disease of the heart muscle itself
  61. myocarditis
    • -itis = inflammation
    • inflammation of the heart muscle
    • one example of cardiomyopathy
  62. endocarditis
    • inflammation of the endocardium
    • often caused by infective microorganisms that invade the endocardium
  63. pericarditis
    • inflammation of the pericardium
    • can be caused by infectious microorganisms, by a cancerous growth, or by other problems
  64. treadmill stress test
    • performed when blockage of coronary arteries is suspected
    • use of electrocardiogram and other measurements
  65. electrocardiography
    electrical currents of the heart muscle are recorded by an electrocardiograph
  66. cardiac catheterization
    • passage of a long flexible tube into the heart chambers through a vein in an arm or leg or the neck
    • catheter: instrument
    • function: collection of blood samples from different parts of the heart and determines pressure differences in various chambers
  67. cardi ac
    • cardi/o = heart
    • -ac = pertaining to
    • refers to the heart
  68. endoscope
    a device consisting of a tube and an optical system that allows observation of the inside of a hollow organ or cavity
  69. -ary
    pertaining to
  70. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  71. echocardiography
    • echo- = sound
    • -graphy = process of recording
    • use of ultrasonography in diagnosing heart disease
  72. echocardiogram
    record of the heart obtained by directing ultrasonic waves through the chest wall
  73. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  74. PET
    positron emission tomography for blood flow using radioactive element
  75. context: diseases and disorders
    angina pectoris
    • angina = Latin - to choke
    • pectoris = Latin pectora - chest
    • severe chest pain and constriction about the heart cause by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart itself
  76. context: diseases and disorders
    • a- = without
    • irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat (dysrhythmia is technically more correct)
  77. context: diseases and disorders
    • cardi/o = heart
    • -megaly = enlargement
    • enlarged size of the heart
  78. context: diseases and disorders
    congenital heart defects
    • congenital = existing at birth
    • abnormalities present in the heart at birth
    • these defects often involve the septum (a partition that divides the right and left chambers of the heart)
    • arterial septal defects and ventricular septal defects involve abnormal openings between the atria and ventricles, respectively
  79. context: diseases and disorders
    congestive heart failure (CHF)
    a condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, and edema (swelling caused by excessive tissue fluid) in lower portions of the body; the work demanded of the heart is greater than its ability to perform; also called congestive heart disease
  80. context: diseases and disorders
    coronary artery disease (CAD)
    an abnormal condition that affects the heart's arteries and produces various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of blood to the myocardium
  81. context: diseases and disorders
    coronary heart disease (CHD)
    heart damage resulting from insufficient oxygen caused by pathologic changes in the coronary arteries
  82. context: diseases and disorders
    a severe cardiac arrhythmia in which contractions are too rapid and uncoordinated for effective blood circulation. It can sometimes be reversed by the use of a defibrillator, an electronic apparatus that delivers a shock to the heart, often through the placement of electrodes on the chest (de- = down, from, or reversing). Defibrillation may also be sued to slow the heart or restore its normal rhythm.
  83. context: diseases and disorders
    heart failure
    a clinical condition resulting from failure of the heart to pump the blood effectively and to maintain adequate circulation of the blood
  84. context: diseases and disorders
    heart murmur
    a soft blowing or rasping sound that may be heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope; it is not necessarily pathologic
  85. context: diseases and disorders
    • hyper- = excessive
    • -emia = blood
    • excessive lipids (fats) in the blood. An elevated blood level of one type of lipid, cholesterol, is associated with an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease in most individuals
  86. context: diseases and disorders
    • hyper- = excessive or above normal
    • elevated blood pressure. Usually, if the first number is consistently above 140 or the second number is consistently above 100 the person is considered to have hypertension
  87. context: diseases and disorders
    • hypo- = below normal
    • low blood pressure. A blood pressure of 95/60 indicates hypotension, but each person's reading must be interpreted individually
  88. context: diseases and disorders
    necrosis of a localized area of tissue cause by lack of blood supply to that area. Necrosis means death of tissue. It can result from occlusion (obstruction) or stenosis (narrowing) of the artery that supplies blood to that tissue. Myocardial infarction (MI) is the death of an area of the heart muscle that occurs as a result of oxygen deprivation (also called acute myocardial infarction [AMI])
  89. context: diseases and disorders
    myocardial ischemia
    deficiency of blood supply to the myocardium (ischemia = a temporary deficiency of blood supply to any body part)
  90. context: diseases and disorders
    a serious condition in which blood flow to the heart is reduced to such an extent that body tissue do not receive enough blood. This condition can result in death. Shock may have various causes, including hemorrhage, infection, drug reaction, injury, poisoning, MI, and excessive emotional stress.
  91. vasodilation
    increase in the diameter of a blood vessel
  92. vasoconstriction
    decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel
  93. angi omas
    • angi/o = vessel
    • -oma = tumor
    • tumors consisting principally of blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymph vessels (lymphangioma)
    • usually benign and not malignant
  94. aorta graphy
    radiography of arteries after injection of radiopaque material into the bloodstream
  95. angio cardio graphy
    radiography of the heart and great vessels after intravenous injection of a radiopaque solution
  96. angiography
    general term for radiography of vessels
  97. aneurysm
    • ballooning out of the wall of a vessel, usually an artery, caused by a congenital defect or weakness of the wall of the vessel
    • can be repaired by surgery
  98. thrombosis
    blood clot
  99. embolism
    sudden blocking of an artery of lymph vessel by foreign material that has been brought to the site of blockage by the circulating blood
  100. embolus
    foreign material brought to the vessel
  101. varicose veins
    • aka varicosity
    • swollen and knotted veins that occurs most often in legs. Result from defective valves in the veins and sluggish blood flow
  102. hemorrhoids
    masses of dilated varicose veins in the anal canal
  103. artheriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries
  104. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    stroke or stroke syndrome
Card Set
Med Terms Ch. 7 (160-173 top) Quiz 1
Round 2 ... spring semester chock full of words for ibhs lab!