nutrition exam 1 study guide

  1. 1. According to social scientists, humans have basic needs that are required for a quality life. According to Gary Gardner of World Watch Institute, what are these needs? Discuss.
  2. 1.Security
    • 2.Good relationships
    • 3.Feeling there is possibility of becoming the person one was born to be
  3. 1. What is wellness?
    Major influence on quality of life which has 7 dimensions and involves lifestyle,ongoing processes, awareness, decision making.
  4. 1. List and study the components of the 7 dimensions of wellness covered in class.
    • 1. Physical health-excercise, sleep, nutrition, seeks medical help, choose to do no slef harm
    • 2. Emotional Wellness- Feelings awareness acceptance, expression, positive feelings about life, self knowledge, respect and love, can say no to others, takes responsibility for one's actions/life, accepts one can only control and change oneself, coping skills
    • 3. Intellectual Wellness-Enjoys learning/lifelong learning, thinks critically, uses resources, takes challenging courses.
    • 4. Social Wellness- Values interdependence, relationships based on trust and respect, communicates, empathizes, accepts/appreciates diversity.
    • 5. Spiritual Wellness- Deep appreciation for life, seeks meaning, purpose and inner peace, prays or meditates, compassion and sense of justice, most include a belief in god or a higher power.
    • 6. Environmental Wellness- Awareness-of our impact by choices, action
    • 7. Occupational Wellness- Understands the value of work, positive attitude about work, work w/integrity, can manage stress/pace/etc.
  5. 1. Discuss the “plan of action” for becoming well through our choices and actions.
    Awareness>Assessment>Plott Changes>Make Changes, assess and keep trying
  6. 1. List and rank the 3 most common causes of the U.S. Are they related to wellness? Discuss.
    • 1. Heart Disease
    • 2. Cancer
    • 3. Stroke
    • Yes all linked to wellness
  7. 1. Discuss the complexity (discipline wise) of the “science of nutrition”.
    The science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support all the processes required for existence. It also includes the study of: Immunology, Medicine,Genetic,Biology,Physiology,Biochemistry,Education,Psychology, and Sociology
  8. 1. What is a nutrient and the 3 major functions?
    Protein,carbs,lipids,vitamins,minerals,water and Substance used by the body for the 3 major functions of Energy, Minerals for growth, and helps regulate body process.
  9. 1. Non- nutrients and functions?
    Can also be involved in body functions ex. fiber and phytochemicals and misc such as dirt and debris
  10. essential nutrients
    Needed by the body but can't be made by the body
  11. non-essenstial nutrient
    not required in the diet because the body can make it
  12. macro nutrients
    water,carbs,proteins,lipids or fats, need larger amounts
  13. micro nutrients
    viatmins, minerals, only need small amounts
  14. organic nutrients
    The nutrient contains carbon
  15. Functional foods
    Contain significant nutrients or non nutrient health promoting substances. processed food that has health promoting substances
  16. 1. List the 6 categories of nutrients.
    protein, carbs, lipids,vitamins,minerals,water
  17. 1. Which nutrients are called the energy nutrients and how much energy does each provide per gram? Define kcal
    carbs,fats and proteins they use nutrients used to produce ATP. kcal amount of calories per 1000 grams.
  18. 1. What is the name of the energy used by cells?
  19. 1. Is food energy?
    no food is turned inot energy by our body
  20. 1. Body comp- study the amount of the of specific nutrients in healthy men then healthy women (most were given in % of body weight).
    • women first
    • water 59 to 62
    • protein 13 to 16
    • fat 22 to 16
    • minerals 5 to 6
    • carbs <1 to <1
    • vitamins trace to trace
  21. Where is most of the water in the body found? Define the terms: intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and vascular.
    • 2/3 of it is found in the cells
    • intracellular- in the cells
    • extracellular- outside the cells
    • interstitial- water in between the cells
    • vascular- water that is part of blood
  22. 1. What are the current, specific 2020 Healthy People nutrition objectives that were discussed in class.
    reduce and prevent obesity in adults and kids, reduce iron deficiency in young kids,women, and prego women, reduce food insecurity in kids 2 and older increase fruits, veggies, fat consumption, calcium, whole grains, nutritious foods in schools and daycares, 2 and older reduce sat fat sodium and sugar
  23. 1. From (2005 USDA/HHS) guidelines: for a 2200 kcal diet list:-the food groups; number of servings and/or cups per day, recommended for each
    Bread 9

    Veg 4

    Fruit 3

    Milk 2-3

    Meat 6oz

    Total fat 73g

    Total sugar 12tsp
  24. 1. Exercise recommendations?
    Moderate intense cardio 30min/day 5days/week or vigorous intense cardio 20min/day 3days/week and 8-10 strength training excercises 8-12 reps of each excercise 2/week
  25. Ethanol recommendations?
    1-2 alcoholic beverages/day is associated w/ the lowest all- cause mortalitly and a low risk of CHD among middle aged adults and older adults. In younger people no health benefit, high risk of death and traumatic injury
  26. List and study/discuss the 6 principles given in class for planning a healthy diet.
    variety, balance, moderation, nutrient density, kcal/portion control, personal and family history of disease and death.
  27. hypothesis
    a prediction about the relationship between variables
  28. correlations
    also called an association, when a change in one variable is related to a change in another variable
  29. cause and effect relationship
    also called causal relationships, when an alteration in one variable causes a change in another variable
  30. simple relationship
    a relationship between two factors that is not influenced or modified by another factor
  31. complex relationship
    a relationship that involves one or more interactions
  32. epidemiologic study
    a study in which data are collected from a group of individuals who are not asked to change their behaviors in any way
  33. intervention study
    an experiment in which something is altered or changed to determine its effect on something else
  34. control group
    a group of people, animals, or cells in an intervention study that does not receive the experimental treatment
  35. Hawthorne effect
    Phenomemom in which study results are influenced by an unintentional alteration of a behavior by the study participants
  36. placebo
    a fake treatment given to the control group that cannot be distinguished from actual treatment
  37. placebo effect
    the phenomenon in which there is a n apparent effect of the treatment becasue the individual expects or believes that it will work
  38. single blind study
    a human experiment in which the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned
  39. double blind study
    a human experiment in which neither the participants nor the scientists know to which group the participants have been assigned.
  40. confounding variables
    a factor other than the one of interest that might influence the outcome of an experiment
  41. animal study
    the use of experimental animal subjects such as mice, rats, or primates
  42. cell structure system
    specific type of celss that can be grown in the laboratory and used for research purposes
  43. peer review
    a publication that requires a group of scientists to read and approve a study before it is published
  44. 1. Describe the digestive tract and list the 3 major functions
    • Structure, function, organization
    • digestion, absorption, and elimination
  45. 1. What are the 4 major tissue types found in the body and their functions?
    epethialial, connective,nerval,muscle
  46. 1. List and define the 4 major tissues that make up the wall of the GI tract. List functions of each.
    Mucosa-inner most layer covered by epithilial cells that protects and secretes

    Submucosa- a connective tissue and transportation vessels blood vessels and lymphoids

    Serosa- outer layer of connective tissue, stability and lubrication

    muscularis- 2 layers smoth muscle nerves and muscle tissue
  47. List the muscle layers of the GI tract and the functions of these.
    Circular, longitudinal, and diagonal
  48. 1. lumen
    The cavity inside a tubular structure in the body
  49. bolus
    a soft, rounded mass of chewed food
  50. chyme
    The thick fluid resulting from the mixing of food with gastric secretions in the stomach
  51. epiglottis
    a cartilage flap that covers the trachea while swallowing
  52. enterocytes
    epithelial cells that make up the lumenal surface of each villus
  53. digestion
    the physical and chemical breakdown of food by the digestive system into a form that allows nutrients to be absorbed.
  54. 2. What are the types of mechanical digestion? Describe each.
    chewing,peristalsis-way food moves muscular contractin that moves bolus to stomach ,segmentation- back and forth mixing and breakdown of food particles,
  55. 1. List the major chemicals involved in chemical digestion, where they function, where they are synthesized and their functions.
    Saliva, bile,gastric juice, pancreatic juice
  56. 1. What is the common bile duct and its function?
    it emolsifies fat and breaks big fat into tiny particles
  57. 1. What are the gastroesophageal and the pyloric sphincters? What are their specific functions?
    • pyloric- at the bottom of stomach to keep food in
    • gastroesophageal- stops food from getting into te lungs
  58. 1. What are the functions of the bacteria that live in the colon?
    break down undigested fiber and produce vitamin K, some B vitamins and lipids
  59. 1. Define absorption.
    • The taking up of nutrients after digestion, into the enterocytes, so they can be transported out to the body cells.
    • most of it takes place in the small intestine
  60. portal route
    villi>portal vein>liver>hepatic vein>heart and blood
  61. lymphatic route
    villi>lymph vessels>thoracic duct>subclavian vein>heart(blood)
  62. 1. What is the name of the basic unit that proteins are made of?
    amino acids
  63. Which elements are part of ALL amino acids?
    carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
  64. 1. How many amino acids are there?
  65. 1. List and describe the 3 major steps of protein synthesis in detail- what is happening, where, why, how.
    cell signaling- cell receives a signal that tells it to make a protein often involves the cell membrane

    Transcription- process by which mRNA is made using DNA as a template>DNA unzips> DNa is copied form gene> after some editing mRNA is synthesized>mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosomes

    Translation-amino acids are linked together via peptide bonds on ribosomes to build the specific protein. uses mRNA and tRNA.
  66. 1. What is the name of the reaction, covered in lecture, that joins amino acid together? Be able to recognize and/or describe the steps of this reaction!
  67. 1. What is meant by the primary structure of proteins? Why is it important?
    number of sequence of amino acids in single polypeptide chain
  68. 1. Describe the secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures.
    2-folding of a protein because of hydrogen bonds that form between amino and acid groups

    3-more folding because of interactions between the R-groups

    4-Several polypeptide chains coming together to form the final protein
  69. 1. Define denaturation. What causes this?
    • Alter or unfold 3D form, causing a loss of biological activity.
    • heat, agitation, acid or basic solutions heavy metals cause this
  70. After transportation, list and discuss in detail, the 5 ways the body cells metabolize amino acids.
    • 1. Make proteins
    • 2. Making non essential amino acids
    • 3. energy production ATP
    • 4. glucose production
    • 5. conversion to body fat
  71. 1. What is the purpose of deamination? Why do we deaminate some amino acids?
    remove the amino group NH2 in order to convert amino acids to fat glucose or energy NH2 converted into urea, in the liver, for excretion in urine
  72. 1. IF this was not done above, define edema, and proteins role in it.
    edema is the swelling of the extremeites by water. proteins attract water and help keep it where it is supposed to be
  73. 1. Be able to figure out the RDA for protein for a sedentary adult and an athlete.
    RDA for protein:.8g/kg desirable body weight. wt in lbs/2.2= wt. in kg
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nutrition exam 1 study guide