1. scabies
    infestation caused by Sarcopes scabiei; involves burrowing in the stratum corneum which leads to a Type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction;produces diffuse erythritic eruption after 2-4 weeks; tends to occur in body folds (wrist & waist-line & genitals & axillae); can be diagnosed by identification of eggs or fecal matter as well as actual mites on histological examination; treatment = topical (preferred) or oral
  2. dermatophyte
    a label for three genera of fungus capable of infectiong keratinized tissue (have keratinases - infect skin & hair & nails): Microsporum & Trichophyton & Epidermophyton; can be transmitted via direct contact or fomites
  3. tinea
    disease resulting from dermatophyte infection (OR tinea versicolor -fungus but not a dermatophyte); moderately infectious
  4. tinea cruris
    """jock itch;"" well-marginated & itchy dermatophyte infection in the genital region"
  5. KOH prep
    scrapings are collected from the stratum corneum in a suspected fungal infection; KOH is added to scrapings on a slide; scrapings are heated to lyse cells & debris around fungus to improve visualization of fungus; examine slides under microscope (look for hyphae)
  6. tinea corporis
    "dermatophyte infection on the body; characterized by annular plaques with active borders & central clearing; ""ringworm"""
  7. tinea faciei
    "dermatophyte infection on the face; characterized by annular plaques with active borders & central clearing; ""ringworm"""
  8. onychomychosis
    also called tinea unguium; dermatophyte infection of the nails (esp. toenails); characterized by yellowing of the nails & subungual debris & thickening of the nails
  9. tinea capitis
    dermatophyte infection of the scalp; common in children
  10. tinea unguium
    also called onychomychosis; dermatophyte infection of the nails (esp. toenails); characterized by yellowing of the nails & subungual debris & thickening of the nails
  11. diagnosis of dermatophyte infection
    can take biopsy (depending on location) & do culture (takes time); can do quick KOH test or Wood's lamp
  12. Wood's lamp
    used to identify fluorescent species of dermatophyte; involves shining of blacklight on infected area & observation of any fluorescence
  13. treatment of dermatophyte infections
    topical creams - azoles & allylamines; oral antifungals (necessary for hair & nail infections & other infections that do not respond to topical medications - topical cream cannot penetrate)
  14. pyoderma
    superficial bacterial infection of the skin
  15. bacteria commonly involved in pyoderma
    Staphylococcus aureus & species of Streptococcus
  16. impetigo
    superficial infection of the epidermis caused by S. aureus or S. pyogenes; highly contagious; acquired through direct contact; characterized by honey-colored crusts & red plaques; may be pustules or bullous eruptions (S. aureus specifically) or impetiginization
  17. folliculitis
    inflammation of the hair follicle; may be fungal or viral or non-infectious in origin as well as bacterial; bacterial folliculitis usually caused by Staph aureus; often carried in nasal carriage
  18. furuncle
    inflammatory nodule that develops around a follicle; also called a boil or risin; caused by S. aureus infection; may develop from folliculitis (deeper - invades dermis)
  19. impetiginization
    secondary infection of a pre-existing skin lesion
  20. diagnosi & treatment of impetigo & folliculitis
    diagnosis via Gram stain & culture; treatment of localized infection with topical antibiotics; treatment of larger infections with oral antibiotics
  21. hot tub folliculitis
    diffuse form of folliculitis; caused by Psuedomonas aeruginosa; usually self-limited; results from exposure to insufficiently chlorinated water
  22. carbuncle
    larger & more extensive furuncle; extends into the subcutis
  23. treatment of furuncles & carbuncles
    cannot be treated with antibiotics -- walled off; hot compresses can be applied to promote drainage; surgical drainage may be necessary; systemic symptoms may require culture & systemic antibiotics
  24. MRSA
    methicillin-resistant S. aureus; becoming more common (over 50% S. aureus infections & over 75% @ Grady); requires alternative treatment - trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)
  25. verruca
    warts; caused by HPV (double-stranded DNA virus); not very highly contagious though can be transmitted via fomites; virus infects basal layer of epidermis & causes acanthosis & hyperkeratosis & koilocytosis & papillomatous appearance
  26. acanthosis
    proliferation of spinous layer of epidermis
  27. papillomatous
    spiny in appearance (characteristic of verruca)
  28. koilocytosis
    characteristic of cells infected with HPV; characterized by enlarged & dark & irregular nuclei
  29. diagnosis & treatment of verruca
    diagnosis usually clinical & rarely involves biopsy; can use OTC salicylic acid (destroys keratin & removes infected cells); imiquimod (prescription topical immune modulater that provokes an immune reponse); freeze off with liquid nitrogen (can leave scar or blister); can remove wart with laser/surgery; can use podophylin (topical cytotoxic chemical)
Card Set
Superficial skin infections