MSK System

  1. Long Bone:
    Cylindric with rounded ends, Often bear weight, (ex. femur)
  2. Short Bone:
    small, bear little or no weight, (ex. phalanges)
  3. Flat Bone:
    protect vital organs, often contain blood-forming cells, (ex. scapula)
  4. Irregular Bones:
    unique shapes, (ex. carpal bones of wrist, small bones of inner ear)
  5. Sesamoid Bone:
    least common type, develops within a tendon, (ex. patella)
  6. Cortex (Bone):
    outer layer of bone; dense, compact bone tissue
  7. Medulla (Bone):
    inner layer of bone; spongy, cancellous trabecular tissue
  8. Diaphysis:
    the shaft (elongated cylindrical portion) between the ends of a long bone
  9. Epiphyses:
    the two knoblike ends of a long bone
  10. Haversian System:
    complex canal network containing microscopic blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to bone and lacunae; canals run vertically within the hard, cortical bone tissue
  11. Lacunae:
    small cavities that house osteocytes (bone cells)
  12. Cancellous:
    the softer tissue inside bones that contains large spaces (trabeculae) that are filled with red and yellow marrow
  13. Hematopoiesis:
    production of blood cells; occurs in red marrow of bones
  14. Volkmann's Canals:
    connect bone marrow vessels with the haversian system and periosteum
  15. Osteoblast:
    • bone-forming cells (type of osteogenic cell)
    • synthesize and lay down new bone, then attract Ca and phosphates to strengthen bone
  16. Osteoclast:
    • bone-destroying cells (type of osteogenic cell)
    • resorb bone in the constant process of bone formation and brkdwn
  17. Osteocytes
    special osteoblasts that sense and responsd to bone pressure and bending in order to direct the process of bone remodeling
  18. Matrix ("Osteoid"):
    collagen, mucopolysaccharides, lipids; deposits of inorganic calcium salts (carbonate & phosphate) provide hardness of bone
  19. Some Facts about Bone
    • very vascular tissue
    • blood flow 200-400 mL/min
    • has a main nutrient artery, branches into ascending/descending vessels, supplies cortex/marrow/haversian system
    • few nerve fibers
    • Sympathetic Nerve Fibers: dilation of blood vessels
    • Sensory Nerve Fibers: pain signals
  20. Function of Skeletal System:
    • Framework: allows body to be weight-bearing, upright
    • Support Surrounding Tissues: (ex. muscle, tendon)
    • Assists in Movement: thru muscle attachment, joint formation
    • Protects Vital Organs: (ex. heart, lungs)
    • Makes Blood Cells: in red bone marrow Stores Mineral Salts: (ex. calcium, phosphorous)
  21. Resorption (Bone):
    loss of bone minerals and density; release of free calcium from bone storage sites directly into the ECF
  22. Calcitonin:
    produced by thyroid gland, decreases serum Ca concentration, inhibits bone resorption, increases renal excretion of Ca and PO as needed to maintain balance
  23. Vitamin D:
    produced in body, transported in blood; promotes absorption of Ca and PO from small intestine; enhance PTH activity to release calcium from bone; deficiency can cause osteomalacia (softening of bone)
  24. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH):
    • (feedback loop system)
    • Low Serum Calcium:
    • ↑secretion, stimulates bone to promote osteoclastic activity, release Ca into blood
    • ↓ renal excretion of Ca, facilitates absorption from intestine
    • High Serum Calcium:
    • ↓ secretion to preserve bone Ca supply
  25. Growth Hormone:
    • secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland; increases bone length, determines amt of bone matrix before puberty
    • Childhood Increase: gigantism
    • Childhood Decrease: dwarfism
    • Adult Increase: acromegaly (bone & soft tissue deformities)
  26. Adrenal Glucocorticoids:
    regulate protein metabolism; ↑ or ↓ catabolism to reduce or intensify the organic matrix of bone; aid regulation of intestinal Ca/PO absorption
  27. Distinguish these joints and provide examples of each: Synarthrodial, Amphiarthrodial, Diarthrodial (Synovial)
    • Synarthrodial: completely immovable [ex. in the cranium]
    • Ampiarthrodial: slightly movable [ex. in the pelvis]
    • Diarthrodial (Synovial): freely movable [ex. elbow & knee]
  28. Synovial Joint (Diarthrodial): Ball-and-Socket, Hinge, Condylar, Biaxial, Pivot
    • most common type in body; most commonly affected by disease; lined with synovium [membrane secretes fluid for lubrication & shock absorption] Ball-and-Socket: [shoulder, hip] movement in any direction
    • Hinge: [elbow] motion in one plane, flexion, extension
    • Condylar: [knee] flexion, extension, rotates slightly
    • Biaxial: [wrist] gliding movement
    • Pivot: [radioulnar] rotation only
  29. Bursae:
    small sacs lined w/synovial membrane, located at joints & bony prominences, prevent friction btwn bone & surrounding structures
  30. Types of muscle: Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal
    • Smooth: non-striated, involuntary, autonomic nervous system, contracts organs & blood vessels
    • Cardiac: short-fibered, striated, involuntary, autonomic nervous system Skeletal: striated, special-function, voluntary, central & peripheral NS, fxn is movement
  31. Motor End Plate:
    junction of a peripheral motor nerve and the muscle cells that it supplies
  32. Fascia:
    dense, fibrous tissue that surrounds the entire muscle; contains the muscle's blood, lymph, and nerve supply
  33. Tendons vs. Ligaments
    • Tendons: bands of tough, fibrous tissue that attach muscles to bones
    • Ligaments: attach bones to other bones at joints
  34. Musculoskeletal Changes Assoc. w/ Aging
    • Osteopenia: decreased bone density (bone loss), osteoporosis is severe osteopenia
    • Synovial Joint Cartilage: less elastic and compressible, damaged cartilage leads to OA
    • Muscle Tissue Atrophy: decreased coordination, loss of muscle strength, gait changes, risk for falls w/injury
  35. Assessment: Patient Hx
    • Traumatic Injury, Sports Activity
    • Previous/Current Illness or Disease
    • Hospitalizations & Illness
    • Lifestyle
    • Occupation
    • Allergies
    • Drug Use
    • Herbs, Vit&Min Suppl, Biologic Compounds
    • Food Intake
    • Family Hx
    • Current Health Problems
Card Set
MSK System
Definitions, etc.