A theory of human development that stresses the role of experience in shaping behavior. Learning is believed to occur as a result of external reinforcement of associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses. Skinner was the major advocate of behaviorism
the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually.
1998 Pew Health Professions Commission recommended 21 competencies for health care professionals in the 21st century. Pg. 27 in P & P.
Conceptual Framework -
a group of related concepts that provides an overall view or orientation to focus thoughts.
Purpose - to give clear direction to the three areas of nursing: Practice, Education, Research
A sudden change in the course of a disease or fever, toward either improvement or deterioration.
An emotionally stressful event or traumatic change in a person's life.
A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism.
It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.
It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases
Esteem used as a noun implies Value, worth or reputation; often used in conjunction with Self-Esteem. Generally implies a favourable opinion, regard or respect.
Experiential perspective -
is based on the diverse characteristics of the individual and the shared meaning based on the context of the situation.
is the dynamic state of balance among human responses and internal and external stressors.
impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism.
the act of some things interacting, or acting upon one another; A conversation or exchange between people.
something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target.
Pathophysiological perspective -
includes the disordered biologic function in the direction of decompensation or illness that results from a stressor.
recurring events, results, etc.
a mental view or prospect.
the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.
Physiological perspective -
includes the usual biological or normal regulatory response to a stressor.
When individuals respond predominantly physiological responses or compensation, they are in a state of health.
Biology. any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus.
an activity, event, or other stimulus that causes stress.
a definite piece of work assigned to, falling to, or expected of a person; duty.
Advanced Practice Nurse -
is generally the most independently functioning nurse.
Clinical Nurse Specialist -
is an APN who is an expert clinician in a specialized area of nursing practice.
Nurse Practioner -
provides health care to a group of clients, usually in an outpatient, ambulatory care, or community-based setting.
Certified nurse-midwife (CNM) -
is an RN who is also educated in midwifery and is certified by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist -
is an RN with advanced education in a nurse anesthesia accredited program.
Nurse Administrator -
manages client care and the delivery of specific nursing services within a health care agency.
Nurse Researcher -
investigates problems to improve nursing care and to further define and expand the scope of nursing practice.
length of stay.
Prospective Payment System (PPS) -
established by Congress in 1983, the PPS eliminated cost-based reimbursement.
The PPS grouped inpatient hospital services for Medicare clients into 468 Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs).
means the providers received a fixed amount per client or enrollee of a health care plan.
situated or occurring outside the intestine <parenteral drug administration by intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection>especially : introduced otherwise than by way of the intestines <enteric versus parenteral feeding>
Not through the alimentary canal but rather by injection through some other route, as subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraorbital, intracapsular, intraspinal, intrasternal, intravenous, etc. Origin: Gr. Enteron = intestine.
Integrated delivery networks -
larger health care systems developed IDNs that include a set of providers and services organized to deliver a continuum of care to a population of clients at a capitated cost in a particular setting.
Disease prevention -
activities that protect people from becoming ill because of actual or potential health threats.
Health promotion -
activities that develop human attitudes and behaviors to maintain or enhance well-being.
Managed care organization -
organization that provides or contracts for specific health care services (e.g. hospital care, prescription medications).
Primary care -
provision of integrated, accessible health care services by health care professionals who address a majority of personal health care needs, develop partnerships with clients, and care for families and communites.
Primary health care -
combination of primary and public health care that is accessible to individuals and families in a community and provided at an affordable cost.
Primary prevention -
health-promoting behaviors or activities that reduce the occurance of an illness.
Public health -
community and interdisciplinary care aimed at preventing disease and promoting health.
Secondary prevention -
early diagnosis anf treatment of illness (e.g. screening for HTN).
Tertiary prevention -
care that prevents further progression of disease.
Case management -
a model of care where a case manager, usually a nurse or social worker, coordinates the efforts of all disciplines to achieve the most efficient and appropriate plan of care for the client.
Discharge planning -
begins the moment a client is admitted to a health care facilty.
Critical pathway -
a multidisciplinary treatment plan that outlines the treatments or interventions clients need to have while in the hospital for a specific condition or procedure.
Restorative care -
helps individuals regain maximal functional status and to enhance quality of life through promotion of independence and self-care.
restores a person to the fullest physical, mental, social, vocational, and economic potential possible.
Extended care facility -
provides intermediate medical, nursing, or custodial care for clients recovering from acute illness or clients with chronic illnesses or disabilities.
Skilled nursing facility -
also called intermediate care, offers skilled care from a licensed nursing staff. Includes administration of IV fluids, wound care, long-term ventilator management, and physical rehabilitation.
Nursing-Sensitive Outcomes -
client outcomes that are directly related to nursing care.
Health care consumers demand quality and service and have become more knowledgeable. They often search on the internet about their health concerns and medical conditions.
They also use the internet to select their health care providers.
Physicians and health care providers have to make their services more accessible as a result of globalization.
Vulnerable populations -
Children, women, and older adults are most threatened by urbanization. Pg. 30 in P & P.