AP Psych ~ Emotion

  1. emotion
    • response of the whole organism, involving psychological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
    • Components:
    • 1) Physiological arousal
    • 2) Expressive behaviors
    • 3) Conscious experience
  2. James-Lange Theory
    • experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
    • Physiology -> expressive behaviors -> conscious experience
    • William James and Carl Lange
  3. Cannon-Bard Theory
    • the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
    • Physiology + expressive behaviors = conscious experience
    • Walter Cannon and Philip Bard
  4. Two-Factor Theory
    • theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
    • Physical + cognitive label = conscious experience
    • Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer
  5. polygraph
    machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies, measures physiological responses accompanying emotion
  6. catharsis
    • emotional release
    • catharsis hypothesis "releasing" aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges **expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement is habit forming**
  7. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
    people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
  8. subjective well-being
    • self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
    • used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people's quality of life
  9. adaptation-level phenomenon
    our tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
  10. relative deprivation
    the perception that one is worse off realtive to those with whom one compares oneself
  11. Emotion and the Autonomic Nervous System
    • Sympathetic - adrenal glands = kidneys -> adrenaline and non adrenaline; increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar
    • Parasympathetic - inhibits further release of hormones; gradual decrease in arousal
  12. Performance of Tasks
    • Easy tasks - high arousal = best performance
    • Difficult/Unrehearsed tasks - moderate/low arousal = best
  13. Physiological SImilarities and Differences
    • Similarities - fear, anger, and sexual arousal
    • Differences - facial expressions
  14. Brain Pathways
    • Left Frontal Lobe = happy, positive personalities *dopamine receptors*
    • Right Frontal Lobe = depressed/negative personalities
  15. Spill-over effect
    • Arousal from one event effects another
    • Interpreting info./labeling affects what emotion we feel
  16. Easier for feelings to hijack thoughts than for thoughts to hijack feelings
    short cut to amygdala, more to cortex than from cortex
  17. Zajonc and LeDoux
    Some emotions (likes and dislikes) are NOT conscious processes
  18. Lazarus, Schachter and Singer
    Complex emotions are greatly effected by cognition
  19. Expressed emotion
    • On face, by body, voice intonation
    • Nonverbal communication
    • Gender and Emotion -> women better at nonverbal
    • Detecting and Computing Emotion -> difficult to detect
    • Culture and Emotional expression -> culturally diverse; people shown basic expressions easily recognize
    • Emotions are adaptive
  20. Analyzing Expressed Emotion
    Biological, psychological and social-cultural influences
  21. Fear
    • Learned - conditioned or observation
    • Biology - Amygdala
  22. Anger
    • 1) Willful, unjustified, avoidable who commit wrongdoings
    • 2) Foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jam, aches and pains
  23. Cultural and Gender Differences
    • 1) Boys move away from anger, girls want to talk about it
    • 2) Anger breeds prejudice (EX. 9/11 -> intolerance to Muslims)
    • 3) Anger expression more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behaviors
  24. Happiness
    • Perceive world as being safer, make decisions easily, more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorable
    • Live healthier, energized and more satisfied lives
  25. Emotional Ups and Downs
    • Positive moods rise to maximum within 6-7 hours of waking up
    • Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day
    • Emotional ups and downs tend to balance; grave diseases may bring people emotionally down, but most adapt
  26. Wealth and Well-Being
    • Belief that being wealthier makes one happier
    • Data suggests happiness is only temporary
    • 1) Affluent Societies - people with more money are happier than people who struggle for basic needs
    • 2) People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries
    • 3) A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy.
    • **People who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life
    • **Money is not a guarantee of happiness
  27. Happiness and Satisfaction
    Subjective well-being (happiness and satisfaction) shows poor countries at top of list
  28. Values and Life Satisfaction
    Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction
  29. Happiness and Others' Attainments
    Comparisons with others effects happiness
Card Set
AP Psych ~ Emotion
AP Psychology Myers book Chapter 13