smallest unit of sound that can differentiate meaning. Ex "/k/" sound in "Kit"
- the part of a syllable that precedes the vowel
- ex: "Sp" in "Spit"
- the part of a syllable consisting of its vowel and its consonant sounds that follow
- ex: "oil" in "spoil"
the study of how sound functions in a language or dialect. Patterns.
the study of the sounds of a language and their physical properties
the study of the structure of words
the smallest unit of language with meaning
the study of meaning in language
the study of the structure of sentences
the study of the role of context in the interpretation of meaning in language
the study of the meaning of words and how they have changed over time
- non specific noun. opposite of proper noun. doesnt name a particular person/place/thing
- ex: person. sign. town
nueter noun (gender)
- inanimate objects
- ex: door
subjective; objective; possessive
- (this, these; that, those) points to and itentifies a noun/pronoun
- ex: "this can't be!"
- used to ask questions
- (who; whom; which; what; whoever; whichever)
- used to link one phrase or clause to another
- (who, whom, what, whoever, whichever, that...)
- ex: the house that jack built is large
- used as an object to refer back to subject of the clause or sentence
- (myself; yoursel; herself...)
- ex: "we think of ourselves as great"
used to emphasize its antecedent. identical to reflexive pronouns
- indicates the temporal, spacial, or logical relationship of object to the rest of the sentence.
- ex: "It's on the tabe."
- possessive pronouns that are used as adjectives to modify a noun/phrase
- ex: "The car is hers"(Possesive pronoun)
- "That is her car." (Possesive adjective. it modifies "car")
- same as demonstrative pronoun but used as an adjective
- (this; these; that; those)
- ex: "This apartment needs..." instead of "This can't be"
- (which; what) same as IP, but adjective
- ex: "Which plants should I water?"
- (many; any) like IP, but adj.
- ex: "Many people believe" v. "Many believe"
can modify a verb, adjective, adverb, phrase, or clause. Answers questions like "how, whow much, when, where?"
- joins two clauses together
- (also; therefore; finally)
- (a, an) - indefinite articles
- (the) - definite article
subject and predicate
- S: what/whom sentence is about
- P: tells something about subject
- ex: "John(subject) went home(predicate)."
- "helping verb" that occurs immediately before another verb
- ex: "Must have"
- joins the subject and adjective or noun. Connects subject to something said about it.
- ex: "Kela is fat"
- action verb (kick; grab). must have direct object
- ex: "Juan kicked me."
- action verb. will not have direct object.
- ex: "The cats lie in the shade."
coordinating, subordinating, and correlating conjunctions
coor (for; and; but); sub (if; though; when) cor (either...or)
a noun (gerund or infinitive) or adjective (participle) formed from a verb.
- (He has spoken)
- emphasis on result
- action that has influence on present
present perfect progressive
- (He has been speaking)
- emphasis on course of action
- (He had spoken)
- action taking place before a certain time
past perfect progressive
(He had been speaking)
(He will be speaking; He will have been speaking)
(He would speak; He would have spoken)
(He would be speaking)
- single word governs/modifies two or more others using multiple difinitions.
- ex: "Rend your heart, and not your garments."
a sentence that changes grammatical structure midway, often to show disturbance or excitement.
- feigned or pretended refusal of something actually desired
- ex: "How kind, but you need it more than me..."
- conclusion based on two premises
- ex: "All A is C; all B is A; therefore, all B is C"
stressed syllable and one unstressed -motion - notion- (double-rhyme); stressed and two unstressed - fortunate - importunate- (triple-rhyme)
- rhyme of but a single stressed syllable
- ex: disdain - complain
study of meter and versification
type of pun where a word is purposely "mixed up" with another for comedic effect
a type of personification. can be living/not living objects take human traits. esp: Gods; animals; religion
- a contrast of words/ideas. Parellel construction
- ex: "Give me libery or give me death"
- a word written the same as another but with different meaning
- ex: bear
- thing equals concept
- ex: "Oval Office" for "President"
- part equals whole
- ex: "all hands on deck"
- purpose: to explain
- not to describe or pursuade
bizarre in nature. like imagery of Franz Kafka
- an address to something not present
- ex: "O Death!"
in media res
- "in the middle of things" narrative that starts in teh middle of action
- ex: The Odyssey
"does not follow" a statement having little or no relevance to what preceded it. often humorous
- comparison of two subjects by a shared action
- ex: "The mouse was quiet as a theif"
a proposition that follows from (and often adds to) one alrready proven
concluding part of a speech typcially meant to inspire enthusiasm
speaking one's thoughts aloud (drama)
- consice statement that contains a cleverly stated subjective truth. a truism
- "Power tends to corrrupt"
Deus ex Machina
"hand of God" resolving conflict by some convenient, unrelated source/power in a narrative.
- repeats one or several words that end one clause and start another
- ex: "Some men are born great....some men...some..."
- the words in one phrase/cluase are reversed in the next.
- "Just because you're born in the slum doenst mean the slum in born in you."
understantement. antonymn of hyperbole
Victorian era. Social reform. Characterized London. Florid/poetic language. Satires upper class. Fantasy and realism. Highly sentimental. Famous for everyday, relatable characters.Oliver Twist 1839 - shocked readers with realistic descriptions of poverty in London slums; A Tale of Two Cities 1859
A Tale of Two Cities
1859. Charles Dickens. London/Paris before French rev. Charles Darnay(F) and Sydney Carton (E)
"A demonstration and sumation of the modernist movement." Ulysses 1922 - modern Odyssey. stream of consciousness.
british. Paradise Lost 1667. Blank verse, epic poem. Reflects his personal dispair at failure of the revolution, yet affirms optimism in human potential.
Rome's greatest poet. The Aeneid 19BC - national epic of Rome. Epic dexameter poem. Follows prince from Troy to Itialian war to found Rome
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
"Germany's supreme genius" - Weimer Classicism. Faust 1832 - Tragic, closet play. Hugely influential
Miguel de Cervantes
- Spanish often called "the language of Cervantes."
- Don Quixote 1605 and 1615 - considered first modern novel. Parody of chivalric romances. Human nature. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
The Tale of Genji (1000AD)
- Greek tradgedian. Improved character/plot
- Oedipus Rex 429 BC
- American writer. Mississippi. Southern Renaissance.
- As I lay Dying 1930 - stream of consciousness. Many narrators.