WEST E English Batch 1

  1. phoneme
    smallest unit of sound that can differentiate meaning. Ex "/k/" sound in "Kit"
  2. onset
    • the part of a syllable that precedes the vowel
    • ex: "Sp" in "Spit"
  3. rime
    • the part of a syllable consisting of its vowel and its consonant sounds that follow
    • ex: "oil" in "spoil"
  4. Phonology
    the study of how sound functions in a language or dialect. Patterns.
  5. Phonetics
    the study of the sounds of a language and their physical properties
  6. Morphology
    the study of the structure of words
  7. Morpheme
    the smallest unit of language with meaning
  8. Semantics
    the study of meaning in language
  9. Syntax
    the study of the structure of sentences
  10. Pragmatics
    the study of the role of context in the interpretation of meaning in language
  11. Etymology
    the study of the meaning of words and how they have changed over time
  12. common noun
    • non specific noun. opposite of proper noun. doesnt name a particular person/place/thing
    • ex: person. sign. town
  13. nueter noun (gender)
    • inanimate objects
    • ex: door
  14. Personal pronouns
    subjective; objective; possessive
  15. Demonstrative pronouns
    • (this, these; that, those) points to and itentifies a noun/pronoun
    • ex: "this can't be!"
  16. Interrogative pronouns
    • used to ask questions
    • (who; whom; which; what; whoever; whichever)
  17. Relative pronouns
    • used to link one phrase or clause to another
    • (who, whom, what, whoever, whichever, that...)
    • ex: the house that jack built is large
  18. Reflexive pronouns
    • used as an object to refer back to subject of the clause or sentence
    • (myself; yoursel; herself...)
    • ex: "we think of ourselves as great"
  19. Intensive pronouns
    used to emphasize its antecedent. identical to reflexive pronouns
  20. Preposition
    • indicates the temporal, spacial, or logical relationship of object to the rest of the sentence.
    • ex: "It's on the tabe."
  21. Possesive adjectives
    • possessive pronouns that are used as adjectives to modify a noun/phrase
    • ex: "The car is hers"(Possesive pronoun)
    • "That is her car." (Possesive adjective. it modifies "car")
  22. Demonstrative adjective
    • same as demonstrative pronoun but used as an adjective
    • (this; these; that; those)
    • ex: "This apartment needs..." instead of "This can't be"
  23. Interrogative adjective
    • (which; what) same as IP, but adjective
    • ex: "Which plants should I water?"
  24. Indefinite adjective
    • (many; any) like IP, but adj.
    • ex: "Many people believe" v. "Many believe"
  25. Adverb
    can modify a verb, adjective, adverb, phrase, or clause. Answers questions like "how, whow much, when, where?"
  26. conjunctive adverb
    • joins two clauses together
    • (also; therefore; finally)
  27. article
    • (a, an) - indefinite articles
    • (the) - definite article
  28. subject and predicate
    • S: what/whom sentence is about
    • P: tells something about subject
    • ex: "John(subject) went home(predicate)."
  29. auxiliary verb
    • "helping verb" that occurs immediately before another verb
    • ex: "Must have"
  30. linking verb
    • joins the subject and adjective or noun. Connects subject to something said about it.
    • ex: "Kela is fat"
  31. transitive verb
    • action verb (kick; grab). must have direct object
    • ex: "Juan kicked me."
  32. intransitive verb
    • action verb. will not have direct object.
    • ex: "The cats lie in the shade."
  33. coordinating, subordinating, and correlating conjunctions
    coor (for; and; but); sub (if; though; when) cor (either...or)
  34. verbal
    a noun (gerund or infinitive) or adjective (participle) formed from a verb.
  35. present perfect
    • (He has spoken)
    • emphasis on result
    • action that has influence on present
  36. present perfect progressive
    • (He has been speaking)
    • emphasis on course of action
  37. past perfect
    • (He had spoken)
    • action taking place before a certain time
  38. past perfect progressive
    (He had been speaking)
  39. future progressive
    (He will be speaking; He will have been speaking)
  40. conditional tense
    (He would speak; He would have spoken)
  41. conditional progressive
    (He would be speaking)
  42. syllepsis
    • single word governs/modifies two or more others using multiple difinitions.
    • ex: "Rend your heart, and not your garments."
  43. anacoluthon
    a sentence that changes grammatical structure midway, often to show disturbance or excitement.
  44. accisum
    • feigned or pretended refusal of something actually desired
    • ex: "How kind, but you need it more than me..."
  45. syllogism
    • conclusion based on two premises
    • ex: "All A is C; all B is A; therefore, all B is C"
  46. slant rhyme
    half rhyme
  47. feminine rhyme
    stressed syllable and one unstressed -motion - notion- (double-rhyme); stressed and two unstressed - fortunate - importunate- (triple-rhyme)
  48. masculine rhyme
    • rhyme of but a single stressed syllable
    • ex: disdain - complain
  49. prosody
    study of meter and versification
  50. malaporism
    type of pun where a word is purposely "mixed up" with another for comedic effect
  51. anthropomorphism
    a type of personification. can be living/not living objects take human traits. esp: Gods; animals; religion
  52. paronomasia
    a pun
  53. antithesis
    • a contrast of words/ideas. Parellel construction
    • ex: "Give me libery or give me death"
  54. homograph
    • a word written the same as another but with different meaning
    • ex: bear
  55. metonym
    • thing equals concept
    • ex: "Oval Office" for "President"
  56. synecdoche
    • part equals whole
    • ex: "all hands on deck"
  57. expository
    • purpose: to explain
    • not to describe or pursuade
  58. kafkaesque
    bizarre in nature. like imagery of Franz Kafka
  59. apostrophe
    • an address to something not present
    • ex: "O Death!"
  60. in media res
    • "in the middle of things" narrative that starts in teh middle of action
    • ex: The Odyssey
  61. non sequitor
    "does not follow" a statement having little or no relevance to what preceded it. often humorous
  62. analogy
    • comparison of two subjects by a shared action
    • ex: "The mouse was quiet as a theif"
  63. corollary
    a proposition that follows from (and often adds to) one alrready proven
  64. peroration
    concluding part of a speech typcially meant to inspire enthusiasm
  65. soliloquy
    speaking one's thoughts aloud (drama)
  66. aphorism
    • consice statement that contains a cleverly stated subjective truth. a truism
    • "Power tends to corrrupt"
  67. Deus ex Machina
    "hand of God" resolving conflict by some convenient, unrelated source/power in a narrative.
  68. anadiplosis
    • repeats one or several words that end one clause and start another
    • ex: "Some men are born great....some men...some..."
  69. chiasmus
    • the words in one phrase/cluase are reversed in the next.
    • "Just because you're born in the slum doenst mean the slum in born in you."
  70. meiosis
    understantement. antonymn of hyperbole
  71. Charles Dickens
    Victorian era. Social reform. Characterized London. Florid/poetic language. Satires upper class. Fantasy and realism. Highly sentimental. Famous for everyday, relatable characters.Oliver Twist 1839 - shocked readers with realistic descriptions of poverty in London slums; A Tale of Two Cities 1859
  72. A Tale of Two Cities
    1859. Charles Dickens. London/Paris before French rev. Charles Darnay(F) and Sydney Carton (E)
  73. James Joyce
    "A demonstration and sumation of the modernist movement." Ulysses 1922 - modern Odyssey. stream of consciousness.
  74. John Milton
    british. Paradise Lost 1667. Blank verse, epic poem. Reflects his personal dispair at failure of the revolution, yet affirms optimism in human potential.
  75. Virgil
    Rome's greatest poet. The Aeneid 19BC - national epic of Rome. Epic dexameter poem. Follows prince from Troy to Itialian war to found Rome
  76. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    "Germany's supreme genius" - Weimer Classicism. Faust 1832 - Tragic, closet play. Hugely influential
  77. Miguel de Cervantes
    • Spanish often called "the language of Cervantes."
    • Don Quixote 1605 and 1615 - considered first modern novel. Parody of chivalric romances. Human nature. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
  78. Murasaki Shikubu
    The Tale of Genji (1000AD)
  79. Sophocles
    • Greek tradgedian. Improved character/plot
    • Oedipus Rex 429 BC
  80. William Faulkner
    • American writer. Mississippi. Southern Renaissance.
    • As I lay Dying 1930 - stream of consciousness. Many narrators.
Card Set
WEST E English Batch 1
WEST E Washington educator skills test. English language arts