Nerve Injury

  1. Posterior dislocation of hip, fracture of pelvis, inter-muscular injections can injure the [sciatic nerve]
    • Fracture of head of fibula [common fibular nerve]
    • Popliteal fossa trauma [tibial and common fibular]
    • ASIS [lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
    • Lumbar nerve roots [back pain]
  2. What are the surface markings of the sciatic nerve?
    • Halfway between PSIS and ishial tuberosity
    • Half way between iscial tuberosity and greater trochanter
  3. State consequences of complete sciatic nerve palsy
    • Motor: Paralysis of hamstrings; Paralysis of entire leg and foot
    • Sensory: Numbness of skin on lateral side of leg, and lateral side of sole of foot
  4. State consequences of damage to common peroneal nerve
    • Motor: Weakness of everters and dorsiflexors inversion and foot drop (aquinovarus)
    • Sensory: Numbness of dorsum of foot, and 1st cleft, anterolateral side of the leg
  5. State consequences of damage to the tibial nerve
    • Motor: Paralysis of posterior compartment of leg, intrinsic muscles of sole of the foot
    • Sensory: numbness of posterolateral side of leg, toes, sole of the foot,
  6. Name the roots of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
    L2, L3
  7. Discuss damage to the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
    • Damaged by belt tightening / trauma
    • Loss of sensation on lateral thigh
  8. Why does back pain occur?
    • Compromised thoracic or lumbar vertebrae, sacroiliac joint, or the hip
    • Nerve damage
    • Herniated disc
  9. Discuss spinal disk herniation
    • Natural degenreation of intervertebral disc
    • Tearing of annulus fibrosis
    • Herniation of nucleus palposus; this substance is very inflammatory
    • Inflammatory response near spinal column; nerve irritation; release of substance P; causes pain
    • Compression of nerve causes motor weakness; sensory abnormalities;
    • If compression in lumbar area, classical cause of sciatica
  10. Where do most herniation occur ?
    Between L5 and S1
  11. Important dermatomes of the lower limb:
    • L1, L2: femoral triangle
    • L4: tibia to the big toe
    • L5: fibula
    • L4, L5, S1: sole and dorsum of foot
    • S1: under 5th toe
    • S2: popliteal fossa
    • S3: where you sit
  12. State the spinal values for the following joint movements of the lower limb
    • Hip joint:
    • Flexion, Adduction, Medial rotation: L2, 3
    • Extension, abduction, lateral rotation: L4, L5, S1
    • Knee joint:
    • Extension: L3, 4 (knee jerk)
    • Flexion: L5, S1
    • Ankle Joint:
    • Dorsi flexion: L4, 5
    • Plantarflexion: S1, 2 (ankle jerk)
    • Foot:
    • Inversion: L4
    • Eversion: L5, S1
  13. What is shenton’s line?
    • Radiographic curve
    • Formed by top of obturator foramen and inner side of neck of femur
  14. Name reasons for a pateelar dislocation
    • Weakness of quads
    • Dysplasia of lateral femoral condyle
    • Twisting injury
  15. Which way does the patella USUALLY dislocate?
  16. Is it the medial or lateral ligaments of the foot that is usually injured? Why?
    • Lateral one more commonly injured (particularly the Anterior Talo-Fibular ligament)
    • Due to over inversion i.e. skateboarding oooh yeaAH
  17. The medial ligament is stronger
    Associated with fracture of medial malleolus
  18. Discuss fractur dislocations of the foot
    Due to overeversion and external rotation of the foot
Card Set
Nerve Injury