Extremely rapid, robotic method of identifying the nucleotide sequence of a region of DNA. Gel electrophoresis and laser detection of fluorescent tracers are part of method.
DNA synthesized from an mRNA transcript through the use of the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Any DNA molecule that can accept foreign DNA and that can be replicated inside a host cell.
Microarray of thousands of gene sequences that represents a large subset of a genome; stamped onto a glass plate and used to study gene expression.
Fragment of DNA inserted into a vector such as a plasmid and introduced into a host organism; used to make many copies of a particular segment of DNA.
A way to distinguish one individual from all others based on unique differences in parts of their DNA; fragments cut from an individual�s DNA (RFLPs) have a unique pattern of sizes.
Type of enzyme that catalyzes the sealing of short stretches of DNA into a continuous strand during replication; also seals strand breaks.
Method of separating DNA molecules according to length, or protein molecules according to size and charge. The molecules move apart while migrating through a gel matrix in response to a weak electric current.
Collection of host cells that contain different cloned DNA fragments representing all or most of a genome.
Manipulation of an organism�s DNA, usually to alter at least one aspect of phenotype.
All DNA in a haploid number of chromosomes for a species.
The study of genes and gene function in humans and other organisms.
human gene therapy
The transfer of one or more normal or modified genes into a person to correct a genetic defect, or to boost resistance to a disease.
nucleic acid hybridization
Any basepairing between DNA or RNA strands from different sources.
Polymerase chain reaction. A method to rapidly copy DNA fragments.
A small, circular bacterial DNA molecule having a few genes; replicated independently of the bacterial chromosome.
Short nucleotide sequence that researchers design as an initiation site for synthesis of a DNA strand on a DNA or RNA template.
Short nucleotide sequence that has been labeled with a tracer; designed to hybridize with part of a gene or mRNA.
recombinant DNA technology
Techniques by which DNA molecules from different species can be cut into fragments, spliced together into cloning vectors, and then amplified to useful quantities.
One of hundreds of proteins that recognize and cut specific base sequences in double-stranded DNA.
A viral enzyme that catalyzes the assembly of free nucleotides into a strand of DNA on an RNA template.
A storage facility where genes of diverse plant lineages are preserved.
One of many copies of short base sequences positioned one after another on a chromosome; used in DNA fingerprinting.
Surgical transfer of an organ from one species to another.