Kitslam's Biology

  1. An immune system
    • is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism
    • that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and
    • tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to
    • parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own
    • healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly. Detection is
    • complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, producing adaptations that
    • avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect
    • their hosts.
  2. White blood cells
    • (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes," "leuco-" being Greek
    • for white), are cells of the immune system involved in defending the
    • body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five[1]
    • different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all
    • produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as
    • a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body,
    • including the blood and lymphatic system.[2]
  3. An abscess
    • (Latin: abscessus) is a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has
    • accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue in which the pus resides on
    • the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or
    • parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g., splinters, bullet wounds,
    • or injecting needles). It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to
    • prevent the spread of infectious materials to other parts of the body.
  4. An ulcer
    • is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied
    • by the disintegration of tissue. Ulcers can result in complete loss of
    • the epidermis and often portions of the dermis and even subcutaneous fat.
    • An ulcer that appears on the skin is often visible as an inflamed
    • tissue with an area of reddened skin. A skin ulcer is often visible in
    • the event of exposure to heat or cold, irritation, or a problem with
    • blood circulation. They can also be caused due to a lack of mobility,
    • which causes prolonged pressure on the tissues. This stress in the blood
    • circulation is transformed to a skin ulcer, commonly known as bedsores or decubitus ulcers. [1] Ulcers often become infected, and pus forms.
  5. Paracetamol
    • (INN) (pronounced /ˌpærəˈsiːtəmɒl/, /ˌpærəˈsɛtəmɒl/) or acetaminophen (/əˌsiːtəˈmɪnɵfɨn/ ( listen)) (USAN) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer). It is commonly used for the relief of headaches, other minor aches and pains, and is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu remedies. In combination with opioid analgesics,
    • paracetamol can also be used in the management of more severe pain such
    • as post surgical pain and providing palliative care in advanced cancer
    • patients.[2] The onset of analgesia is approximately 11 minutes after oral administration of paracetamol,[3] and its half life is 1–4 hours.
  6. Codeine
    • (INN) or 3-methylmorphine (a natural isomer of methylated morphine, the other being the semi-synthetic 6-methylmorphine) is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal properties. Codeine is the second-most predominant alkaloid in opium, at up to 3 percent; it is much more prevalent in the Iranian poppy (Papaver bractreatum),
    • and codeine is extracted from this species in some places although the
    • below-mentioned morphine methylation process is still much more common.
    • It is considered the prototype of the weak to midrange opioids.
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Kitslam's Biology