Psychology ch.2

  1. theory
    set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to on another
  2. hindsight
    after-the-fact understanding
  3. what are the advantages and disadvantages of hindsight
    • advantage-provides insight
    • disadvantage-many explanations unable to know what ones are correct
  4. Law of parisimony
    If two theories can explained predicted equally well, the simpler is preferred.
  5. variable
    factor that can vary
  6. operational definition
    defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it.
  7. social desirability bias
    tendency to respond in a cocially acceptable manner tather than according to how one truly feels or behaves.
  8. darley and latanes experiment
    bystander emergency experiment
  9. how did latane's and darley test their hypothesis?
    Record whether and how quickly college students helped a seizure victim
  10. unobtrusive measures
    record behavior while participants are unawared.
  11. archival measures
    records that already exist
  12. how can psychologists measure behavior
    self-reports, reports from others who know participants, unobtrusive measures, archival data, psychological tests, physiological measures.
  13. What is thinking scientifically?
    • curiosity
    • skepticism
    • open-mindedness
  14. steps in scientific process
    • observe
    • info. gathering, forming hypothesis
    • conducting research
    • analyze, conclusions, report findings
    • build a body of knowledge
  15. hypothesis
    prediction about a phenomenon
  16. descriptive research
    describes how humans and animals behave in natural settings
  17. naturalistic observation
    gathers info about behavior in real-life settings
  18. case study
    anaylysis of a person, group or event
  19. correlational research
    measures the relation between naturally occurring variables. positive correlations 1st and 2nd variables have high scores. negative correlations have opposite variable scores.
  20. independent variables
    manipulated variable, viewed as cause
  21. dependent variable
    measured, viewed as effect
  22. placebo effect
    change in behavior from expectation, not because of the treatment
  23. confounding variables
    independant variable becomes mixed up with an uncontrolled variable
  24. internal validity
    degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions
  25. experimenter expectancy effects
    unintentional ways researchers influence participants response
  26. double-blind procedue
    prevents placebo effects and experimenter expectancy
  27. external validity
    replicating study under other circumstances
  28. descriptive statistics
    summarize the characteristics of a set of data
  29. measures of central tendancy
    whats the most typical score
  30. median
    score in the middle
  31. mean
    average of scores
  32. mode
    most frequent
  33. range
    difference between highest and lowest scores
  34. inferential statistics
    determines whether findings will occur again
  35. statistical significance
    unlikely that findings occured by chance
  36. meta-analysis
    combine different studies that examine same topic
Card Set
Psychology ch.2
psychology ch.2