Chapter 8 pt. 3

  1. herniated disk/disc
    protrusion of a degenerate or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  2. herpes zoster
    viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles
  3. Huntington chorea
    Huntington disease
    hereditary disease of the central nervous system characterized by bizarre, involuntary body movements and progressive dementia
  4. hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
  5. meningioma
    benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (the meninges)
  6. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  7. migraine headache
    paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
  8. multiple sclerosis
    disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
  9. myasthenia gravis
    autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
  10. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  11. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
  12. neural tube defects
    congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube , the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
  13. anencephaly
    defect in closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube that results in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull; the most drastic neural tube defect usually results in a stillbirth
  14. spina bifida
    defect in development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges (meningocele) or of the meninges and spinal cord (meningomyelocele); considered to be the most common neural tube defect
  15. Parkinson disease
    condition of slowly progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia); usually occurs later in life
  16. plegia
  17. hemiplegia
    paralysis on one side of the body
  18. paraplegia
    paralysis from the waist down
  19. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four limbs
  20. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
  21. polyneuritis
    inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as lack of thiamine
  22. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
  23. electrodiagnostic procedures
    diagnostic procedures used to evaluate the function of the nervous system by recording the electrical signals produced in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
  24. electroencephalogram
    record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain; sued to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
  25. evoked potentials
    record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders; also used to monitor the neurologic function of patients during surgery
  26. polysomnography
    recording of various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
  27. lumbar puncture
    introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as to obtain CSF for testing; also called spinal tap
  28. Intracranial MRA
    magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
  29. extracranial MRA
    magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
  30. single-photon emission computed tomography
    SPECT brain scan
    scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after the administration of radioactive isotopes
  31. positron-emission tomography
    technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; sued to study stroke, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, and so on; provides greater accuracy than SPECT, but is used less often because of cost and limited availability of the radioisotopes
  32. cerebral angiogram
    x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
  33. computed tomgraphy CT of the head
    computed tomography images of the head used to visualize abnormalities, such as brain tumors and malformations
  34. myelogram
    x-ray of the spinal cord obtained after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
  35. reflex testing
    test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
  36. deep tendon reflexes
    involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive findings are either no reflex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses
  37. Babinski sign
    Babinski reflex
    pathologic response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
  38. transcranial Doppler sonogram
    image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessles; used in the diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
  39. carotid endarterectomy
    incision and coring of the lining of the carotid artery to clear a blockage caused by the buildup of atherosclerosis plaque or a clot; an open procedure used to treat patients who are at risk for stroke
  40. craniectomy
    excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
  41. craniotomy
    incision into the skull to approach the brain
  42. diskectomy
    removal of a herniated disk; often done percutaneously
  43. endovascular neurosurgery
    interventional neuroradiology
    minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disorders within blood vessels of the neck, brain, and spinal cord using specialized catheters inserted percutaneously into the femoral artery (in the groin) and guided by angiographic imaging to the treatment site; performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists
  44. laminectomy
    excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
  45. vertebral lamina
    flatten posterior portion of the vertebral arch
  46. microsurgery
    use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
  47. neuroplasty
    surgical repair of a nerver
  48. spondylosyndesis
    spinal fusion
  49. chemotherapy
    treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
  50. radiation therapy
    treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede the proliferation of malignant cells
Card Set
Chapter 8 pt. 3
medical terminology nervous system