Basic structural unit of all plants and animals. A membrane enclosing a thick fluid and a nucleus. Cells are specialized to carry out basic functions.
What are the different organelles and their functions?
- -Nucleus: Contains genetic material such as deoxyrionucleic acid (DNA)
- -Endoplasmic Reticulum: Network of small channels that has both rough and smooth portions. Rough ER functions in the synthesis or building of proteins. Smooth ER functions in building lipids, some of which are used in the building of cell membranes and carbohydrates.
- -Golgi Apparatus: Located near the nucleus. Performs many functions such as packaging secretions such as mucous and enzymes.
- -Mitochondria: "Powerhouses". Comvert nutrients into energy such as ATP
- -Lysosomes: Contain digestive enzymes. Protect against disease, produce nutrients, break down bacteria, and organic debris that has been brought into the cell.
- -Peroxisomes: Similiar to lysosomes. Especially abundant in the liver, the absorb and neutralize toxins such as alcohol.
The outer membrane of the cell. AKA Plasma Membrane
Able to allow some, but not all, substances through. Cell membranes are semi-permiable.
The thick fluid or protoplasm that fills a cell.
Structures that perform specific funtions within a cell.
The organelle in a cell which contains DNA, or genetic material. In cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
An energy compound found in all cells. Yields energy when split by an enzyme.
A group of cells that perform a simliar function.
The protective tissue which lines internal and external body tissues. i.e: skin, mucous membranes, intestinal tract lining.
- Tissue capable of contraction when stimulated. Three types:
- -Cardiac (myocardium, heart muscle, involuntary)
- -Smooth (intestinal, surrounds blood vessels, involuntary)
- -Skeletal (allows skeletal movement, voluntary)
The abundant body tissue. Provides support, connection and insulation. i.e: bone cartilage, fat, blood.
Tissue that transmits electrical impulses throughout the body.
A group of tissues functioning together. i.e: heart, liver, brain, etc.
- A group of organs which work together.
- -Cardiovascular: heart, blood vessels, blood
- -Respiratory: lungs, associated structures
- -Gastrointestinal: mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, rectum, anus
- -Genitourinary: kidneys, bladder, urethra
- -Reproductive: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, testes, prostate, penis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens
- -Nervous: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
- -Endocrine: pituitary, pineal gland, pancreas, testes, ovaries, adrenal glands, thyroid, parathyroid
- -Muscular: all muscles in body
- -Skeletal: bones
The sum of all cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
The natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady, normal environment.
The structure of an organism, body structure.
The functions of an organism. The physical and chemical processes.
The total changes that take place during physiological processes
Negative Feedback Loop
Body mechanisms that work to reverse or compensate for, a pathophysiological process. Or to reverse any physiological process, whether pathological or nonpathological.
What are the two main control systems in the body?
The study of disease and its causes
The physiology of disordered function. The study of how diseases alter or result from an alteration of normal physiology.
What are some adaptations cells make in response to disease or stress?
- Atrophy: Decrease in cell size resulting from decreased workload
- Hypertrophy: An increase in cell size from increased workload
- Dilation: Enlargement. Abnormal enlargement resulting from pathology. i.e: Heart
- Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells from an increased workload.
- Metaplasia: Replacement of one cell type by a cell of another type that is not normal for that tissue.
- Dysplasia: A change in cell size, shape or appearance caused by an external stressor.
Cell division with division of nucleus. Each daughter cell contains the same number of chromosomes as the mother cell. Mitosis is the process by which the body grows.
Forms of cellular injury
- Infectious agents
- Inflammatory reactions
- Physical agents
- Nutritional factors
- Genetic factors
A blockage in the delivery of oxygenated blood to the cells.
A microorganism capable of producing infection or disease.
The constructive phase of metabolism in which cells convert nonliving substances into living cytoplasm
The destructive phase of metabolism in which cells break down complex substances into simpler substances with release of energy.
Swelling caused by injury to or change in perimiability of the cell membrane with resulting inability to maintain stable intra- and extra cellular fluid and electrolyte levels.
A result of cellular injury and swelling in which lipids (fat vesicles) inate the area of injury. Occurs most commonly in the liver.
Type of cellular death. Response in which an injured cell relases enzyems that engulf an destroy itself. One way the body rids iteself of dead and damaged cells.
- Cell death. A pathological cell change. Four types:
- -Coagulative: Results from hypoxia. When the transparent viscous fluid becomes firm and opaque. Kidneys, heart, adrenal glands.
- -Liquefactive: Cells become liquid and contained in walled cysts. Common in ischemic death of nerve and brain tissue.
- -Caseous: Incompletely digested cells take on a cottage cheese-like consistency. Common in tubercular lung infection
- -Fatty: Fatty scids combine with calcium, sodium and magnesium ions to create soaps. Tissue becomes white and opaque. Common in breast and abdominal structures.
- Takes place over a large area of tissue. Three types:
- -Dry: Results from coagulative necrosis and affects the skin. Turns skin dry, shrunken and black.
- -Wet: Results from liquefactive necrosis. Usually affects internal organs.
- -Gas: Result of bacterial infection of injured tissue. Generates gas bubbles in the cells. By attacking red blood cells it can result in death by shock.
Total Body Water
The total amount of water in the body at a given time.
The fluid inside the cells. 75% of water.
All the fluid found outside of cells. 25% of water.
Type of extracellular fluid. All the fluid in the blood vessels, blood plasma. 7.5% of fluid.
Fluid contained outside the cells and the vasculature. 17.5 % of fluid.
A substance that dissolves other substances forming a solution. Water is considered the universal solvent.
- Excessive loss of body fluid. Some causes are:
- -Gastrointestinal: Result from prolonged vomitting or diarrhea or malabsorption disorders.
- -Increased Insensible Loss: Loss through normal mechanisms such as sweating, respiration, saliva. Increase during fever, hyperventilation or high environmental temperatures.
- -Increased Sweating: Perspiration, diaphoresis. Can occur with medications or high temperatures.
- -Internal Losses: Third space losses. Fluid lost from intravasculture into interstitial space.
- -Plasma Losses: Occurs from buruns, surgical drains and fistulas, and open wounds.
Normal tension in the cell. The resistance to deformation. Hydrated cells will return to normal when pinched. If someone is dehydrated the skin will stay peaked for longer.
The prescence or retention of an abnormaly high amount of body fluid.
A substance that, in water, seperates into electrically charged particles.
What are the major electrolytes in the body?
- -Hyrdogen "H" 62%
- -Oxygen "O" 26%
- -Carbon "C" 10%
- -Nitrogen "N" 1.5%
What are some trace elements in the body?
- -Calcium Ca
- -Chlorine Cl
- -Iodine I
- -Iron Fe
- -Magnesium Mg
- -Phosphorus P
- -Potassium K
- -Sodium Na
- -Sulfur S
To seperate or break down. i.e:Sodium Bicarbonate breaks down into sodium cation and a bicarbonate anion.
A charged particle. An atom or group of atoms whose charge has changed due to the loss or gain of an electron.
An ion with a positive charge
An ion with a negative charge.
Most frequently occuring cations
- -Sodium (Na+)-Regulates distribution of water because water is attracted to it
- -Potassium (K+)-Electrical impulses, Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia
- -Calcium (Ca++)-Muscle contraction, impulse transmission. Hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia
- -Magnesium (Mg++)-Many functions. Works with Phosphate
Most frequently occuring anions
- -Chloride (Cl-)- Fluid balance, renal function
- -Bicarbonate (HCO3-)- Buffer of the body. Neutralizes acidic H+.
- -Phosphate (HPO4-)-Body energy stores
A substance that tends to preserve or restore a normal acid-base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+)
Equal in concentration of solute molecules. Solutions may be isotonic to each other.
Having greater concentration of solute molecules. One solution may be hypertonic to another.
Having a lesser concentration of solute molecules. One solution may be hypotonic to another.
The difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermiable membrane.
The movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
- The passage of a solvent such as water through a membrane.
- Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of higher WATER concentration to an area of lesser WATER concentration. Because water is a solvent it moves from an area of lower SOLUTE concentration to an area of higher SOLUTE concentration.
Movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient. That is, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Opposite of normal diffusion.
Diffusion of a substance such as glucose through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a "helper" or carrier protein.
The concentration of solute per kilogram of water.
The concentration of solute per liter of water.
"water pressure" The pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to pull water from the other side of the membrane.
- The form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles or colloids present in blood plasma. In the capillaries, the plasma colloids, tend to pull water from the interstitial space across the capillary membrane into the capillary.
- Opposite to hydrostatic pressure: it pulls water back into the capillary from the interstitial space in an effort to create water balance.
Blood pressure, or force against vessel walls created by the heartbeat. Hydrostatic pressure tends to force water out of the capillaries into the interstitial space.
Movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
The total loss of water from blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space. Normally, hydrostatic pressure forcing water out of the capillary is balanced by the oncotic force pulling water into the capillary for a net filtration of zero.
Excess fluid in the interstitial space.
The liquid part of blood. About 54% of blood
Red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to the cells.
White blood cells, which play a key role in the immune system and inflammatory (infection fighting) responses. About 1% of blood
An iron-based compound that binds with oxygen and transports it to the cell. Contained in the red blood cells.
The percentage of the blood occupied by erythrocytes. About 45%
IV fluid for use in blood or water loss from the body. Can be Normal Saline, Lactated Ringers, Whole Blood, Packed Red Blood Cells, Plasma or a Plasma subsitutute.
Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen-Carrying Solutions (HBCOs)
Intravenous fluids that have the capability to transport oxygen and are compatible with all blood types. Comes from hemoglobin of expired human blood or bovine (cow) blood. Potentially very effective.
- Substances such as proteins or starches consisting of large molecules that disperse evenly withing a liquid without forming a true solution. Colloids have an oncotic force which brings fluid into the vasculature.
- -Plasma Proteint Fraction
- -Salt-poor Albumin
- Substances capable of crystallization. In solution, unlike colloids, they can diffuse through a membrane such as a capillary wall.
- -Isotonic solutions- Have electrolyte compositions similiar to plasma. i.e: NaCL, Ringers
- -Hypertonic Solutions- Higher solute concentration than the cells. These fluids tend to cause fluid to shift from the interstitial space into the intravascular space. i.e: plasmanate, dextran
- -Hypotonic Solutions- Lower solute concentration than the cells. Cause fluid to move from vasculature into interstitial space. i.e: D5W
Solute concentration or osmotic pressure relative to the blood plasma or body cells.
Common pre-hospital fluid
- -Lactated Ringers:Isotonic electrolyte solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride and sodium lactate in water.
- -Normal Saline: Isotonic electrolyte solution of sodium chloride in water.
- -D5W:Hypotonic glucose solution used to keep the vein open and to supply calories necessary for cell metabolism.
Abbreviation for potential of hydrogen. Measure of relative acidity or alkalinity. pH scale is inverse to the concentration of acidic hydrogen ions, the lower the pH the greater the acidity. Higher pH the greater the alkalinity. Normal pH range for human blood is 7.35-7.45.
High concentration of hydrogen ions. pH of 7.35 or lower.
Low concentration of hydrogen ions. pH above 7.45.
Three mechanisms of hydrogen ion removal
- -Bicarbonate Buffer
- -Kidney Function
What is the equation for pH in the body?
H+ + HCO3- <->
H2O + CO2
- H+ = Hydrogen ions
- HCO3 = Bicarbonate Ion
- H2CO3= Carbonic Acid
- H2O = Water
- CO2 = Carbon dioxide
Bicarbonate buffers the hydrogen ions making carbonic acid. The acid is broken down by an anzyme into water and carbon dioxide.
What are the common Acid-Base derangements?
- -Respiratory acidosis
- -Respiratory alkalosis
- -Metabolic acidosis
- -Metabolic alkalosis
Acidity caused by abnormal retention of carbon dioxide resulting from impaired ventilation.
Alkalinity caused by excessive elimination of carbon dioxide resulting from increased respiration.
Acidity caused by an increase in acid, often because of increased production of acids during metabolism or from causes such as diarrhea, diabetes, or medication.
Alkalinity caused by an increase in plasma bicarbonate resulting from causes including diuresis, vomitting or ingestion of to much sodium bicarbonate.
An agent that increases urine secretion and elimination of body water.