Any bodily movement produced by contraction of skeletal muscles that increase energy expenditure above a basal level and enhances health.
Energy expenditure is measured in
Kcal (kilocalories) or KJ (kilojoules)
1 kcal = 4.184 KJ
Physical activity can be classifies as
- low = <150 min/wk
- med = 150 = 300 min/wk
- high = >300 min/wk
The 4 general categories that measure physical activity are...
- 1. calorimetry
- 2. physiological markers
- 3. mechanical & electric motion detectors
- 4. occupational & leisure time survey instruments
What is calorimetry?
direct = heat exchange (insulated chamber or suit)
indirect = measure O2 consumption and CO2 production
What are physiological markers?
- heart rate monitor
- doubly labeled water (DLW)
What are mechanical and electronic motion detectors?
- in-shoe step counters
- electronic motion sensors
What are occupational and leisure-time survey instruments?
- job classification
- activity diaries or records
- physical activity recall questionaires
Whare is the most popular and practical approach for large goups of individuals?
What is a subcategory of physical activity; planned, sructured, repetitive, purposive (improvedment or maintenance of physical fitness is an objective)
What are the 3 components to comprehensive approach to physical fitness?
- 1. cardiorespiratory fitness
- 2. body composition
- 3. musculoskeletal fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance)
What are the skill-related components of physical fitness?
agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, reaction time
What are the helath-related components of physical fitness.
- cardiorespiratory endurance,
- body composition
- musculoskeletal fitness
- musc. strength
- musc. endurance
Name some helath-related sports.
- aerobic dancing,
- cross country skiing,
- jumping rope
- snow shoeing
List some skill related sports.
archery, bowling, fencing, golf, table tennis, volleyball, baseball, downhill skiing, football, tennis
Both skill-related and health-related sports.
basketball, handball, ice-skating, raquetball, rollerskating, soccer, squash
An approach to personal health that emphasizes individual responsibility for health through lifestyle behaviors.
Absense of mental disorders, ability to negotiate daily challenges and social interactions of life.
Ability to interact effectively with other people and social environment (relationships) - avoid social isolation
Abiloity of circulatory and respiratory system to supply oxygen durring sustained physiacl activity.
cardio respiratory endurance or aerobic fitness
Low level of cardiorespiratory endurance is consistently linked with premature death especially _______
The lab test generally regarded as best measure of cardiorespiratory endurance.
direct measure of oxygen uptake during maximal graded exercise
Best test to estimate V02 max cardiorespiratory fitness include:
stair climbing, submax bike test, maximal treadmill, cycle ergometer
Disadvantages of lab V02max
expensive, time-consuming, requires highly trained personnel, not practical for mass testing
ACSM recommendations for cardiorespiratory fitness
150 min/wk of mederate intensity or 75 min/wk of vigorous intensity
The body's rekatuve aniybts if fat abd keab bidt tussye ir fat-free mass (muscle, bone, water)
Preferred index used to evaluate a person's body composition
percent body fat
percentage of total weight represented by fat weight
extensive accumulation of fat weight
Optimal body fat levels for men and women
- men: optimal <15%; obese >25%
- women: optimal <23%; obese >33%
Most precise measure for assessing body composition
hydrostatic (underwater) weighing
Method of choice for assessing body composition?
functional capacity of joints to move through a full ROM larely determined by muscles, ligaments and tendons
define Muscular strength
maximal one-effort force that can be exerted against a resistance
max-force one can generate in an isolated movement of single muscle groups
how do you measure muscular strengh?
1 or 2 repitition max or dynamometer
define Muscular endurance.
muscles ability to continue to perform without fatique; apply submax force repeatedly or sustain submax muscular contraction for certain amt. of time.
What are some common muscular endurance exercises?
sit ups, push ups, chin ups, lift weights 10 - 15x
What are some simple and inexpensive musculoskelatal fitness tests?
sit and reach flexibility test, push-ups, sit ups, weight lifting
ACSM recommendation for musculoskeletal fitness?
2-4 sets of 8-12 resps or 8-10 exercises 2-3 days a week working all major muscle groups
legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, arms