1. Supine or Dorsal Recumbent
    On back, feet together
  2. Lateral Recumbent
    On side, affected side up
  3. Prone position
    On abdomen, arms at side (or up)Can be flat or angled
  4. Lithotomy position
    On back, legs raised and flexed, thighs at right angle to body; exposing perineum
  5. Trendelenburg’s position
    On back, head tilted downward 30 to 40 degrees and the legs angulated downward beneath the knees
  6. 4 quadrants - abdomen
    Right upper, Right lower, Left upper, Left lower
  7. 6 layers of tissue
    Skin – protective covering

    Subcutaneous tissue – fatty layer under the skin

    Anterior fascia – firm connective tissue that covers the anterior aspect of muscles

    Muscle – fibrous tissue formed in to sheaths Posterior fascia – firm connective tissue that covers the posterior aspect of muscles

    Peritoneum – thin membranous lining of the abdominal cavity beneath the posterior fascia
  8. Thoracotomy Incision
    Any incision into the chest cavity (thorax)Usually intercostals (between ribs)
  9. Midline Sternotomy
    Vertical, along sternumFor open heart surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass
  10. Left Anterior Thoracotomy
    Used for MIS (minimally invasive surgery) for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. USSC’s Mini CABG Access Instruments are designed for this type of incision
  11. Laparotomy
    Any incision made into the abdominal cavityFor a specific procedure of for exploration
  12. Midline Incision
    Longitudinally in center of abdomen Along the linea alba, between muscledAccess to all quadrants
  13. R or L Paramedian
    Vertical incision, lateral and parallel to midlineUsed for specific procedures ie. Splenectomy
  14. McBurny
    Use for appendectomy(diagonal toward pelvis)
  15. Oblique Inguinal
    in area of groin (diagonal toward pelvis)for Inguinal herniorraphy
  16. Subcostal
    below the ribs (diagonal toward oblique)for gallbladder procedures
  17. Pfannenstiel
    curving, transverse incision made above the pubic bone (bikini incision)
  18. Umbilical Incision
    used for laparoscopy made along Langer’s Lines (pre-existing folds/creases in umbilicus)vertical or horizontal
  19. Gastrectomy
    removal of part or entire stomach
  20. Lumbar Incision
    From abdomen to back, exposing kidney
  21. Pathology
    disease; condition
  22. Clinical History
    of patient, can factor into what can and cant be done
  23. symptoms
    something the patient refers; subjective
  24. signs
    observable; measurable; can be recorded and compared
  25. treatment
    symptomological treatment – without diagnosis

    prognosis - forecast based on diagnosis
  26. outcomes
    morbidity – complications

    mortality – death rate

    recurrence – comes back
  27. palliative
    alleviate symptoms; do not treat problem
  28. curative
    takes care of the root cause; symptoms and signs are gone > 5 yrs.
  29. de novo
    “new case”
  30. aponeurosis
    flat ligament; connection between muscle and attachment
  31. etiology
  32. ileopatic
    unknown pathology
  33. Hartman’s procedure
    any procedure done in two stages
  34. retroperitoneal
    immobile structure (ascending colon, descending colon, duodenum)
  35. intraperitoneal
    mobile; attached by mesentery
  36. collateral circulation
    more than one source of blood supply to a structure
  37. phrenic nerve
    nerve to diaphragm – controls contraction/inspiration
  38. sphincter
    ring of muscle – contracts to close
  39. fistula
    an abnormal opening between two structures
  40. bleb/bullae
    “blister” on the visceral pleura
  41. Endoscopy
    Inspection of cavities via MIS; Uses small incisions
  42. Laparoscopy
    Exploration of abdominal cavity through laparoscope
  43. Endoscope
    Optical device that can be inserted to allow for visualization of internal body
  44. Laparoscope
    Endoscope used in the abdominal/peritoneal cavity
  45. Pelviscopy
    Internal inspection of a pelvic cavity
  46. Thoracoscopy
    Inspection of the thoracic cavity
  47. Diaphragm
    Separates abdominal and thoracic cavity; Aids respiration
  48. Mediastinum
    In between lungs - Contains heart, pericardium, major vessels, esophagus, trachea and nerves
  49. Visceral pleura
    Membrane covering the lungs
  50. Pericardium
    Sac-like structure that surrounds the heart
  51. Trachea
    Airway into lungs
  52. Parietal pleura
    Lining of thoracic cavity
  53. Bronchial Tree
    Left and right main stem bronchi; Conducts air from trachea to lungs
  54. Hilum of lung
    Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Vein, main stem of bronchus
  55. Lobar Bronchi
    Divisions off main stem bronchi - 3 right, 2 left
  56. Bronchioles
    Small branches off lobar bronchus
  57. Alveoli
    Small air sacs off bronchioles; Gaseous exchange
  58. Lobes of lung
    Left: Upper and Lower

    Right: Upper, Middle, Lower
  59. Aorta
    Transports O2 (oxygenated) blood from heart to body
  60. Vena Cava
    Transports deoxygenated blood back to heart
  61. Pulmonary Artery
    Transports deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
  62. Pulmonary Vein
    Transports oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
  63. Pulmonary
    Pertaining to Lung
  64. Intrapulmonic pressure
    positive (+) pressure within the lungs
  65. Interpleural pressure
    negative (-) pressure between parietal pleura and visceral pleura
  66. Dyspnea
    Difficulty breathing
  67. Apnea
    Cessation of breathing
  68. Pneumothorax
    Collapse of lung due to air in pleural cavity
  69. Thoracotomy
    Surgical opening into chest for any procedure
  70. Wedge Resection
    Removal of pie shaped tissue from lung Performed for biopsy

    Use Multifire GIA 60 3.5 2x for pie shape

    Make sure staples cross over each other
  71. Pleurodesis
    AKA pleural abrasionDry sponge abrade parietal surface for sealing air leaks
  72. Pneumonectomy
    Removal of entire lung
  73. Lobectomy
    Removal of a lobe of lung

    Use Multifire TA30-V3, Multifire TA 60-3.5

    Mobilize lobar artery, veins, and lobar bronchus

    Artery and veins are ligated via TA 30-V3 Rotic

    Bronchus is ligated using TA60 – 3.5.
  74. Lung Resection
    Areas of lung are turned or folded to incur function of lung
  75. Emphysema
    Alveolar walls are destroyed leading to loss of elasticity and decreased oxygen exchange.
  76. Lung Biopsy
    May be for diagnostic purposes

    Use Multifire TA 60

    Intercostal incision

    Grasp lung with Duval clamp

    Stapler is positioned transversely


    Scalpel used to transect specimen
  77. Gastrectomy
    Gastric resection; Removal of part or entire stomach
  78. Gastroenterostomy
    Surgical creation of an anastomosis between stomach and intestine
  79. Splenectomy
    Resection of spleen
  80. Cholangiography
    Radiographic examination of the bile ducts
  81. Bowel Resection
    Removal of a portion of any part of intestine

    Followed by anastomosis, ileostomy or colostomy

    Use GIA
  82. Total colectomy
    Removal of all of the colon
  83. Hemicolectomy
    Removal of ½ of the colon
  84. Right Hemicolectomy
    Removal of ascending colon and a portion of transverse colon
  85. Left Hemicolectomy
    Removal of descending colon and a portion of transverse colon
  86. GI System
    Mouth to Anus

    35 feet long
  87. 3 layers of GI Tract
    Serosa – outer

    Submucosa – muscular middle (circular & longitudinal muscles)

    Mucosa – inner
  88. Vagus nerve
    Triggers production of HCI
  89. 3 parts of stomach


  90. Rugae
    Folds on inner lining of stomach
  91. Cardiac sphincter
    Opening of esophagus to stomach
  92. Pyloric sphincter
    Opening of stomach to duodenum
  93. Ligament of Treitz
    Junction of duodenum and jejunum

    Anatomical landmark
  94. Colon 4 parts:
    ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
  95. Anal sphincter
    Controls evacuation of bowel contents
  96. Anus
    Opening at end of anal canal
  97. Small Intestine
    Greatest amount of digestion and absorption

    • 3 parts:
    • 1. duodenum
    • 2. jejunum
    • 3. ileum
  98. Peritoneal
    thin membranous tissue of abdominal cavity
  99. Pharynx
    food travels to back of mouth
  100. Appendix
    Attached to cecum

    No function
  101. Ampulla of Vater
    Opening in duodenum through which bile passes

    An enlargement in the ducts where the common duct and pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum.
  102. Cystic duct
    Joins hepatic duct from liver to form common bile duct which empties bile into duodenum through Ampulla of Vater.
Card Set
positions, incisions, anatomical terms, surgeries