IB Bio Human Evolution Exam Review

  1. Phylogeny
    Study of the evolutionary history of and the relationships between organisms.
  2. Clade
    A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendents
  3. Cladistics
    Analysis of how species may be grouped into clades
  4. Analogous
    Similarities not due to shared ancestors but due to ecological niche
  5. Homologous
    Similar internal structures due to shared ancestry
  6. Describe the major anatomical features that define humans as primates
    • 1. Reduced jaw
    • 2. Prehensile hands and feet, with nails not claws, have opposable thumbs
    • 3. Large brain
    • 4. Eyes are close together, facing forward for binocular vision
    • 5. Generalized teeth
    • 6. Flexible shoulder joint w/ collarbone
    • 7. Extended gestation(pregnancy)
    • 8. Hand-eye coordination
  7. Ardipithecus ramidus
    5.8-4.4 mya

    • earliest hominid
    • found in Africa
    • partially bipedal
  8. Australopithecus afarensis
    3.9-2.5 mya

    • ancestor of all later hominids
    • found near/in Ethiopia
    • long lower jaw, chimp sized brain, long arms, curved fingers, human like teeth, bipedal, short stature
  9. Australopithecus africanus
    3-2.3 mya

    • found in Africa
    • brain is 1/3 the size of human's
    • lighter build, fully bipedal, straight fingers, flat face
  10. Homo habilis
    2.4-1.6 mya

    • found in Africa
    • tool use
    • 1/2 the size of a human brain
    • earliest homo species
    • short stature
  11. Homo erectus
    1.8mya - 200,000 ya

    • first to migrate out of Africa
    • brain approaches human size
    • better tools, flat & thick skull, smaller teeth
    • found in Africa, Asia, Indonesia, and Europe
  12. Homo neaderthalensis
    150,000 - 30,000 ya

    • Found in Europe/Middle East
    • tool use, simple burial, large brain, coexisted with humans, lived in cold areas
    • not directly related to humans
  13. Homo sapiens
    200,000ya - present

    • large brain
    • found everywhere
    • smaller teeth, shorter jaw, high skull, adapted for warmth, close pair bonding, males are larger than females

    art, symbolic thought, language, continuous cultural evolution, more advanced tools/weapons & hunting techniques
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IB Bio Human Evolution Exam Review
IB Biology human evolution and other things from that chapter