Health Behavior and Society

  1. What is difference between sensation and perception?
    sensation and perception are 2 different stages in processing of information in humans (vision, auditory senses)

    • Sensation: made of two parts Distal Stimulus and Proximal Stimulus
    • Distal Stimulus: objects/people in environment
    • Proximal Stimulus: patterns produced at eye, ear, etc
  2. What are the stages of the perceptual cycle?
    • Interpretation
    • Action
  3. Define Learning
    • A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
    • Knowledge, skills, personal habits, emotional responses, preferences
  4. What is Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning?
    A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
  5. What is Operant Conditioning?
    A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
  6. Define Health Behavior
    • Aimed at preventing disease
    • Any activity undertaken by a person believing himself to be healthy for the purpose of preventing disease or detecting it at an asymptomatic stage
  7. What are behavioral pathogens?
    • health damaging behaviors or habits
    • smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, fatty diet
  8. What are behavioral immunogens?
    • Health protective behaviors or habits
    • exercise, low fat diet
  9. Health Belief Model (smoking)
    • proposes that health behavior is a result of a set of beliefs about the below
    • susceptibility to illness: (my chances of getting lung cancer are high)
    • severity of illness: (lung cancer is a serious illness)
    • benefits of health behaviors: (if i quit smoking, i will feel very irritable)
    • costs of health behaviors: (if i quit smoking i will save a lot of money)
    • cues to action: (ext: the TV show on health risks of smoking worried me - int: I feel breathless when walking fast, that worries me)
    • health motivation: {effectiveness of action} (it is important to me to maintain my health)
  10. HBM strength and limitations
    • Strength: easy to apply
    • Limitations: neglects social factors, too broad
  11. Theory of Planned Behavior
    • Predicts that health behavior results from behavioral intention which is in turn influenced by personal attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.
    • Attitude -> intention -> behavior
    • Subjective norm -> intention -> behavior
    • Perceived behavioral control -> intention -> behavior
    • Perceived behavioral control -> behavior

    • Situation: Adherence and Asthma
    • Action: "taking my inhaler could prevent asthma attacks...It's important to look after my health"
    • Subjective Norm: "My family and friends believe I should take my inhaler...Their opinioins are important to me"
    • PBC: If I wanted I could take my inhaler every day"
    • Intention: "I intend to take my inhaler every day"
    • Behavior: Adherence
  12. TBC strengths and limitation
    • Strength:
    • Limitations:
  13. Stage of Change or Transtheoretical Model
    • Based on concept that our beliefs change over time: made of 5 stages that an individual goes through when moving toward a change in behavior
    • Precontemplation: individual has not even acknowledged problem
    • Contemplation: Individual acknowledges problem, but not ready or sure of wanting to change
    • Preparation: Individual plans ahead and gets ready for change
    • Action: Individual changes their behavior
    • Maintenance or Relapse: Individual maintains their behavior or relapses to previous lifestyle

    • Situation: Stop smoking
    • Precontemplation: "I believe there is no link between my smoking and my health. I believe my health is fine"
    • Contemplation: I perceive a link between the number of cigarettes I smoke and my poor health
    • Preparation: I prepare to stop smoking
    • Action: I stop smoking
    • Maintenance/relapse: I continue to smoke or go back
  14. TTM strengths and limitations
    • Strengths:
    • Limitations:
  15. What are the components of memory?
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  16. Encoding
    • Forming memory code
    • ATTENTION is critical for encoding
    • Encoding with use of example and picture = encoding at deeper level = semantic encoding
    • Deeper levels = better recall
  17. Storage
    • Made of three parts:
    • Sensory, short-term, and long-term memory

    • Sensory memory:
    • lasts for fraction of second
    • acoustic and visual encoding

    • Short-term memory:
    • limited space, lasts only 20 seconds
    • forgetting due to displacement or interference

    • Long-term memory:
    • unlimited capacity, information lasts indefinitely
    • encoding based on meaning
    • forgetting due to decay
    • Organized into: Declarative memory (facts) and Procedural memory (actions)
    • Declarative memory organized into: semantic memory (general) and episodic memory (personal)
  18. The Primacy and Recency effect (Serial-Position Effect)
    Information at beginning and end is recalled better than the information in the middle
  19. Retrieval
    Getting information back out of memory
  20. name 4 levels of forgetting
    • Recall: purest form
    • Recognition: 'hint' brings back information
    • Reconstruction: need multiple hints
    • Re-learning savings: can't recall, but takes less time to re-learn
  21. Why do we forget?
    • 1. Ineffective encoding
    • - info may not have been encoded properly, because of lack of attention
    • 2. Decay
    • - memories decay with time
    • 3. Interference
    • - competition from other information
    • 4. Retrieval Failure
    • - retrieval often best when context is similar to encoding context
    • 5. Motivative Forgetting
    • - Freud - people bury unpleasant, painful, or embarrassing memories deep in unconscious mind - REPRESSION
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Health Behavior and Society