Physical Science

  1. Define Matter:
    anything that has mass and takes up space.
  2. Elements:
    a substance that can't be separated or broken.
  3. Molecules:
    smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself & retain all chemical properties.
  4. Chemical properties:
    describe how a substance changes into a new substance by combining or breaking apart.
  5. Chemical formula:
    shows how many atoms of each are in a unit of a substance.
  6. Physical properties:
    characteristics that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.
  7. Chemical changes:
    change that occurs when one or more substances change into a new substance with different properties.
  8. Physical changes:
    affects physical properties without changing identity of the substance
  9. Atoms:
    smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of the element
  10. Density calculations:
    • D = m/v
    • V = m/d
    • M = d(v)
  11. Mixtures:
    can be separated by physical changes.
  12. Solid:
    • definite shape, definite volume, vibrate around fixed positions.
    • shape changes, definite volume, particles close together.
    • shape changes, volume changes, particles compressed.
  13. Kinetic theory:
    Because they are all in motion, all particles of matter have kinetic energy.
  14. Melting:
    • solid -> gas
    • gas -> liquid
    • liquid -> gas
    • solid -> gas
  15. protons:
    • positive, in the nucleus
    • no charge, in the nucleus
    • negative, energy levels
  16. Atomic number:
    Number of protons in the nucleus.
  17. Mass number:
    protons + neutrons.
  18. periods:
    • Horizontal, rows
    • Vertical, columns
  19. cations:
    • positive, lose electrons
    • negative, gain electrons
  20. metals:
    shiny; conduct heat and electricity
  21. Nonmetals:
    Dull; poor conductors.
  22. covalent bonds:
    between nonmetals; share electrons.
  23. Ionic bonds:
    between metals and non metals; transfer electrons.
  24. metallic bonds:
    formed between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them.
  25. solar eclipses:
    lunar eclipses:
    • Sun, Moon, Earth
    • Sun, Earth, Moon
  26. Inner planets:
    Outer planets:
    • Terrestrial; few or no moons; Mercury -> Mars
    • Gaseous; large, rings, many satellites; Jupiter -> Neptune
  27. Nebular Hypothesis:
    Solar system was formed from a cloud of dust and gas.
  28. Comets:
    small body of ice, rock, and cosmic dust that follows an elliptical orbit
  29. Meteors:
    • meteoroid that is falling through earths atmosphere.
    • meteoroid that survives fall to earth.
    • smaller than asteroids; found out in space
    • small solar system bodies that orbit the Sun.
  30. Light-year
    distance light travels in a year.
  31. Spiral galaxy:
    Elliptical galaxy:
    Irregular galaxy:
    • sphere shape with arms
    • sphere shape, no arms
    • no definite shape.
  32. Black hole:
    object so massive & dense not even light can escape its gravity.
  33. interstellar matter:
    dust & gas located between stars in a galaxy.
  34. exo-planets:
    planet-like bodies that orbit the Sun
  35. Igneous:
    • rock that forms when magma cools, solidifies, & crystallizes.
    • rock that forms from other rocks undergoing extreme heat & pressure.
    • formed from remains of older rocks; type of rock in which fossils are made.
  36. Chemical weathering:
    Physical weathering:
    • when a rock is broken down due to reactions with the environment.
    • breaks rock down but does not alter chemical composition.
  37. Earthquakes:
    occur along shifting plate boundaries; caused by rocks breaking.
  38. seismic waves:
    p waves:
    s waves:
    surface waves:
    • produced by earthquakes.
    • primary; move faster; originate at focus
    • secondary; move slowly; originate at focus
    • move along surface; cause most damage; origin at epicenter.
  39. convergent:
    • plates slide over each other.
    • area where one plate slides over another.
    • two tectonic plates past one another.
    • plates slide past one another.
  40. Sheild volcano:
    Composite volcano:
    Cinder Cone volcano:
    • mild eruptions; largest volcano
    • made of alternating layers of ash, cinders & lava; very steep.
    • most abundant; violent eruptions
  41. principle of superpostion:
    tells relative age of rock; older on bottom; newer on top.
  42. absolute dating:
    uses radioactive isotopes to assign approximate ago to rocks.
  43. minerals:
    have characteristic chemical composition; occur naturally; have orderly internal structure.
  44. fossils:
    found in sedimentary rock; remains of once-living organisms.
  45. erosion:
    removal & transportation of weathered & non-weathered materials.
  46. deposition:
    process in which material is laid down or deposited as a result of erosion.
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Physical Science
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