anything that has mass and takes up space.
a substance that can't be separated or broken.
smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself & retain all chemical properties.
describe how a substance changes into a new substance by combining or breaking apart.
shows how many atoms of each are in a unit of a substance.
characteristics that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.
change that occurs when one or more substances change into a new substance with different properties.
affects physical properties without changing identity of the substance
smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of the element
can be separated by physical changes.
- definite shape, definite volume, vibrate around fixed positions.
- shape changes, definite volume, particles close together.shape changes, volume changes, particles compressed.
Because they are all in motion, all particles of matter have kinetic energy.
- solid -> gas
- gas -> liquidliquid -> gassolid -> gas
- positive, in the nucleus
- no charge, in the nucleusnegative, energy levels
Number of protons in the nucleus.
protons + neutrons.
- Horizontal, rows
- Vertical, columns
- positive, lose electrons
- negative, gain electrons
shiny; conduct heat and electricity
Dull; poor conductors.
between nonmetals; share electrons.
between metals and non metals; transfer electrons.
formed between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them.
- Sun, Moon, Earth
- Sun, Earth, Moon
- Terrestrial; few or no moons; Mercury -> Mars
- Gaseous; large, rings, many satellites; Jupiter -> Neptune
Solar system was formed from a cloud of dust and gas.
small body of ice, rock, and cosmic dust that follows an elliptical orbit
- meteoroid that is falling through earths atmosphere.
- meteoroid that survives fall to earth.smaller than asteroids; found out in space
- small solar system bodies that orbit the Sun.
distance light travels in a year.
- sphere shape with arms
- sphere shape, no armsno definite shape.
object so massive & dense not even light can escape its gravity.
dust & gas located between stars in a galaxy.
planet-like bodies that orbit the Sun
- rock that forms when magma cools, solidifies, & crystallizes.
- rock that forms from other rocks undergoing extreme heat & pressure. formed from remains of older rocks; type of rock in which fossils are made.
- when a rock is broken down due to reactions with the environment. breaks rock down but does not alter chemical composition.
occur along shifting plate boundaries; caused by rocks breaking.
- produced by earthquakes.
- primary; move faster; originate at focussecondary; move slowly; originate at focusmove along surface; cause most damage; origin at epicenter.
- plates slide over each other.
- area where one plate slides over another.
- two tectonic plates past one another.
- plates slide past one another.
Cinder Cone volcano:
- mild eruptions; largest volcano
- made of alternating layers of ash, cinders & lava; very steep.
- most abundant; violent eruptions
principle of superpostion:
tells relative age of rock; older on bottom; newer on top.
uses radioactive isotopes to assign approximate ago to rocks.
have characteristic chemical composition; occur naturally; have orderly internal structure.
found in sedimentary rock; remains of once-living organisms.
removal & transportation of weathered & non-weathered materials.
process in which material is laid down or deposited as a result of erosion.