Children and Development

  1. What are the three stages of prenatal development?
    Germinal, Embryonic and Foetal
  2. When can the mother potentially start to feel her baby move in the womb?
    From 16 weeks
  3. What does the term niche picking mean?
    The tendency to choose environments that nurture our predisposed characteristics.
  4. What is the name given to drugs, diet and diseases that can affect a mothers baby before it is born?
  5. What does UNCRC stand for?
    United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989
  6. What is the name given to twins who are identical?
  7. What is the name of the condition that can affect children during childbirth where they are deprived of oxygen?
  8. What does FAS stand for?
    Foetal Alcohol Syndrome
  9. What is the Apgar score?
    Score out of 10 used to measure how healthy a newborn baby is (consideration is given to heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, colour and refelx irritability). A score less than 7 is dangerous, whereas a score less than 4 is critical.
  10. What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous development?
    Continuous is gradual and incremental (e.g. weight and height gain). Whereas, discontinuous refers to stages of development (e.g. sequence of a child's motor development).
  11. What is meant by the term normative?
    Measure of how an individual in relation to the 'norm' of a large group.
  12. What is the difference between nativism and environmentalist theory?
    Nativism focuses on the role of genes (nature) whereas environmentalist theory emphasises experience (nurture/empiricism)
  13. What perspective on development is Hobbes mostly associated with?
    Authoritarianism - the Puritan belief that children are intrinsically sinful and need authority and discipline to correct this.
  14. What is Rousseau known for?
    His nativist perspective; in that he believed children were born innocent and susceptible to corruption from their environment. He saw children as progressing through stages and believed it is a parents duty to rear them in a certain way in tune with these stages.
  15. Who is the main theorist associated with empiricism?
  16. Who is the main theorist associated with rationalism?
  17. What is the name of the perspective that sees knowledge as a product of experience?
  18. What perspective is Kant associated with?
  19. What perspective merges empiricism and rationalism and places it's focus on the agency of the child?
  20. What is the name given to the perspective that sees knowledge as innate and something that is revealed throught life?
  21. To what does the term developmental niche refer?
    The physical, social and cultural setting in which development takes place.
  22. What is the focus of behaviourism?
    The observed influence of the environment on behaviour.
  23. What does ABA stand for?
    Applied Behavioural Analysis
  24. Who are the two figures associated with Classical Conditioning?
    • Pavlov and his salivating dog;
    • Watson and Little Albert.
  25. What are the two types of conditioning?
    Classical and Operant
  26. What claim did Watson make?
    That he could take any infant with any genetic make up and train them up to be any chosen specialist (i.e. doctor), emphasising the role of the environment in learning.
  27. Who is associated with operant conditioning?
  28. What is the main difference between the two different kinds of operant conditioning?
    • Reinforcement - increases behaviour
    • Punishment - reduces behaviour
  29. Explain the concept of generalization in relation to the Little Albert experiment.
    Little Albert's conditioned response of being fearful and crying was generalized from the conditioned stimuli of a rat to neutral stimuli resembling the latter (i.e. furry objects).
  30. What are the two types of reinforcement?
    • Positive - reinforcing behaviour with something positive (i.e. reward);
    • Negative - reinforcing behaviour by removing something aversive (i.e. noise stops when a button is pressed, so the button pressing increases to avoid the noise)
  31. What are the three types of punishment?
    • Positive - Punish with something aversive if the behaviour occurs;
    • Time out - Remove the reinforcer if behaviour occurs (e.g. parent walks away if child has a tantrum);
    • Response cost - Something is removed if behaviour occurs (i.e. favourite toy)
  32. What name is given to the reversal of conditioning by weakening the learned behaviour by presenting the US without the CS?
  33. What is the schedule of reinforcement?
    In operant conditioning, the schedule of reinforcement is the frequency of which the reinforcement or punishment is applied. The less frequent (i.e. a star to reward occasional good behaviour) has more influence of behaviour than a reward everytime.
  34. Who is associated with social learning theory?
  35. What is the main idea of social learning theory?
    Behaviour is learned through imitation.
  36. Who is associated with constructivism?
  37. What four things must a child do and be to imitate a behaviour?
    • Attend;
    • Retain;
    • Be physically able;
    • Be motivated
  38. What is Genetic Epistemology?
    The study of the origins and development of knowledge.
  39. What is egocentrism?
    Only seeing your own point of view (especially children)
  40. What is object permanence?
    The knowlege that an object still exists even when it is removed from sight.
  41. What perspective is discovery learning associated with?
  42. What is socio-cognitive conflict?
    Thought provoking conflict with peers
  43. What is the general idea of constructivism?
    That children pass through stages of development at their own individual pace. As they experience actions they use repetion and effects to build a mental representation of the act. They become adapted to their environment (assimilation - intrinsic motivation - accommodation).
  44. What is the name given to the nativist approach that asserts that infants are born with an innate basic knowledge of physical objects and an understanding of knowledge?
    'Core Knowledge' approach
  45. What are Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
    • Senori-motor stage;
    • Pre-operational;
    • Concrete operations;
    • Formal operations.
  46. What two words beginning with 'a' form the basic principles of Piagetian constructivist theory?
    • Assimilation
    • Accommodation
  47. What do 'violation of expectations' experiments measure?
    Time spent looking at an impossible object or event; people tend to look longer at something implausible.
  48. What is the distinction between direct imitation and deferred imitation?
    Direct is when behaviour is imitated immediately, whereas deferred imitation is imitation after a delay. Piaget believes the latter is the kind of imitation that truly shows a child can retain an action in their memory.
  49. What age does Piaget believe children can conduct deferred imitation?
    18-24 months
  50. What is the difference between a type and a trait?
    Type is a category and trait is a dimension (e.g. extraversion-intraversion)
  51. What trait theory is Cattell associated with?
    16PF (personality factor) model
  52. What trait theory is Costa & McCrae associated with?
    Big 5
  53. What is the expression given to shyness in infants? Who coined this phrase?
    'Behavioural inhibition', Kagan
  54. What is correlation?
    Relationship between two variables. The extent to which one variable changes in line with another - can be positive and negative.
  55. What statistical test can be used to measure associations between categories of information?
    Chi-square test
  56. What range of correlation coefficient are considered as representing a strong relationship?
    0.6 - 1 or -0.6 - -1
  57. What range of correlation coefficient are considered as representing a weak relationship?
    under 0.3 or under -0.3
  58. What does a correlation coefficient of 0 show?
    No correlation/relationship
  59. What is a genotype?
    All the alleles in an individual
  60. What is a phenotype?
    Characteristics resulting from the genotype (e.g. eye colour)
  61. What are the two types of allele?
    Recessive and Dominant
  62. What is the name given to the pairing of two of the same allele in a gene?
  63. What is the name given to the pairing of two different recessive/dominant allele in a gene?
  64. What is the name given to the development as a result of the interaction between genes and their environment?
    Epigenetic development
  65. What is the name given to the statistic used to express the percentage of genetic influence on a given characteristic?
  66. Give an example of a natural/quasi experiment.
    Twin adoption studies
  67. What is the name given to a two person relationship?
  68. Why did Harlow choose to study infant monkey's?
    The motor skills of infant monkies are more developed from birth compared to humans, allowing them to be studied straight away.
  69. Which researcher is mainly associated with imprinting?
  70. What is the name of the scientific study of how behaviour and its influence on survival?
  71. Who was Bowlby influenced by at the Tavistock Clinic?
  72. What is the name of the husband and wife research team that investigated 'separation anxiety'?
    Robertson and Robertson
  73. Who was associated with the 'strange situation'?
    Mary Ainsworth
  74. What are the three attachment classifications originally posed by Ainsworth?
    • Insecure-Avoidant (Type A)
    • Secure (Type B)
    • Insecure-Ambivilant (Type C)
  75. What are the four parenting styles posed by Baumrind?
    • Authoritarian
    • Authoritative
    • Permissive
    • Non-Conformist
  76. What are the Adult Attachment Interview narrative types?
    • Dismissing (associated with Type A insecure-avoidant infant attachment styles);
    • Autonomous (Type B secure);
    • Preoccupied (Type C onsecure-ambivalent).
Card Set
Children and Development
ED209 Child Development