World History Semester 1 Final

  1. who were the greek philosophers in order?
  2. name the helenistic scholars and what they are each known for
    • aristarchus-proposed that earth & the planets revolved around the sun
    • ptolemy-incorrectly placed earth at the center of the solar system
    • eratosthenes-computed earths circumference
    • euclid-wrote the book elements
    • archimedes-estimated the value of pi
  3. diagram the roman republic & its american equivalent
    Look on noted
  4. asses the impact of the 12 tables on western law
    • -all western gov. is based on the roman model
    • -12 tables->magna carta->constitution->branches of gov.
  5. describe the social, economical, political, & military causes that led to the collapse of the roman empire
    • Military
    • -to big to defend
    • -germanic tribes constantly attacked
    • Social/Political
    • -willingness to die for rome decreased
    • -politicians looked for personal gain
    • Economic
    • -without expansion there was a shortage of gold
    • -devalued coins by using less metal in coins causing inflations
  6. list and compare the roman gods to their greek equivalents
    look on notes
  7. describe multiple ways the romans impacted western life politically, socially, educationally, linguistically, etc.
    • Architecture
    • -roads, aquaducts, domes, arches, colosseum

    • Language
    • -latin
    • -basis of romance lang.
    • -basis of much english
    • -used in law, medicine, & science

    • government
    • -all western gov. based on roman model
  8. how did the dark ages get its nickname?
    there wasnt much writing so historians didnt know alot
  9. what is feudalism and how did it work economically and militarily?
    • -a social, economic, & military system based on trading land for loyalty & service
    • -a lord gives a land grant called a fief to a vassal in exchange for a promise of military service & a portion of their crops & taxes
  10. diagram the feudal pyramid
    • King
    • Noble
    • Knight
    • Peasant/surf
  11. identify factors that led to the growth of towns and how it affected the power structure of middle age politics
    • -weather+horsepower+three field system=more crops=more food=healthier, stronger people
    • -population grew
    • -as the pop. grew, people left the farms to go into towns
  12. explain the factors that led to the end of the middle ages
    -plague, split in church, kings gained power
  13. explain how the renaissance period displayed different values than those of the middle ages
    ppl began focusing on worldly pleasures & arts and lit. rather than strictly christianity
  14. identify and explain the abuses within the catholic church that led to the protestant reformation
    • -sex after vows of chastity
    • -living lavoushly
    • -selling indulgences & relics
    • -miss rep. the bible
    • -drunkness & gambling
  15. evaluate the impact of the printing press on literacy and the reformation
    • -made bibles cheap
    • -common ppl could own a copy
    • -printed in vernacular
    • -allowed commoners to interpret for themselves
    • -exposed church corruption
  16. identify the renaissance artists and their most well know works
    • Da Vince-mona lisa, the last supper
    • Michelangelo-mich.'s david, sistine chapel ceiling
    • Donatello-don.'s bronze david
    • Raphael-school of athens
  17. identify important figures in the reformation following martin luther
    • -henry VIII
    • -john calvin
    • -anabaptists
  18. identify and explain the reasons that Europeans explored the globe
    wealth, Christianity, empires, technology, renaissance spirit
  19. how did mercantilism affect the economies of colonial powers and their colonies
    transfered wealth from the colony to the colonial power
  20. describe how conquistadors were able to conquer large civilizations with relatively few men
    • -small pox & flu
    • -superior weapon and tactics
    • -alliances with other tribes
    • -brutality=no mercy
  21. describe the effects of louis XIV on france and Phillip II
    • louis-made france self sufficient
    • phillip-raised taxes, inflation, nobles didnt have to pay taxes and taxes fell on lower class, kept guilds and had to import goods
  22. describe the effects of peter the great on russia
    -westernized russia
  23. list the english monarchs and other leaders of the stuart dynasty in chronological order
    • -James I
    • -Charles I
    • -The English Civil War
    • -Oliver Cromwell
    • -Charles II
    • -James II and the Glorious Revolution
    • -William and the Constitutional Monarchy
  24. how did the scientific revolution change how scientists worked
    scientists began testing ideas with reason and expirimentation
  25. describe the difference between a geocentric and heliocentric solar system and why the scientists advocated each
    • geocentric
    • -earth centered
    • -church taught since we were made in gods image universe must revolve around us
    • -simple observation

    • heliocentric
    • -sun centered
    • -25 years of studying the planets & starts pointed to this fact
  26. describe how the scientific revolution affected the rest of society
    -scientists were using reason & experimentation to find out what was true in their realm scholars in other areas of study started doing the same thing
  27. pericles
    • -led athens for 32 years at the height of their power
    • -extended direct democracy, put more things to vote on
    • -made the athenian navy the greatest in the world
  28. alexander the great
    • -took over at age 20
    • -next 11 years, army marches 11,000 miles conquering everything from greece to india
    • -let men go home
    • -died at age 32
  29. hellenic culture
    -where ever alexander conquered he brought the greek culture and blended it with the good aspects of the local culture
  30. peloponnesion wars
    • -sparta vs athens
    • -sparta had strong army, but felt threatened that athens was getting stronger
    • -after 27 years of war a plague wipped out 1/3 of the city of athens, leaving them to weak to fight
  31. sulla
    -first rich general to recruit a personal army and become more powerful than the roman army and take over and become a dictator and eventually a emporer
  32. julius caesar
    • -started out as a rich general
    • -made money by invading and conquering Gaul
    • -he, craussus, and pompey created the first triumverate
    • -he double crossed the other two and took power
    • -stabbed to death by the roman senate
  33. augustus/octavian
    • -octavian was ceasers nephew
    • -formed second triumverat
    • -killed them and took over rome
    • -changed his name to augustus and became caeser augustus
  34. atilla the hun
    -led the huns
  35. constantine
    • -roman emporer who was in a battle he assumed he was gonna lose
    • -had a vision to put a cross on the shields, did and won
    • -made christianity one of the official religions
  36. patricians
    rich people
  37. plebian
  38. legion
    5000 soldiers
  39. germanic tribes
    -groups from northern and sometimes eastern that would constantly attack rome
  40. republic
    • -when you elect your leaders for the gov.
    • -rome had one
  41. clovis
    • -1st frank leader to unite all of the franks
    • -converted to christianity
    • -allied with the church to spread christianity though out earth
  42. charles martel
    • -clovis's son
    • -charles the hammer
    • -won the battle of tours and drove the muslims out of spain and prevented them from turning euro. muslim
  43. charlemagne
    • -pepins son
    • -named emporer by pope and had an empire that covered all of france and much of spain and germany
    • -very effective leader
  44. feudalism
    -a lord gave a land grant called a fief to a vassal in exchange for a promise of military service and a portion of their crops as taxes
  45. stages of knighthood
    • -page
    • -squire
    • -knight
  46. chivalry
    • -code of conduct every knight was expected to live by
    • -called them to fight for god, women, & their fuetal lord
  47. clergy
    -church official
  48. richard the lion-heart
    -fought in 3rd crusade
  49. crusades
    -series of wars fought btwn. christians and muslims over holy land-jerusalem, israel
  50. great schism
    -split in papacy
  51. bubonic plague
    • -disease started in china and made its way to euro by merchant ships
    • -lymph system would shut down and you couldnt fight disease
    • -1/3 ppl died
  52. hundred year war
    • -england vs. france
    • -fought over who would be king of france
  53. william the conqueror
    • -from n france (normandy)
    • -laid claim to eng. throne, won at battle of hastings
    • -took land from opponents and gave it to supporters
    • -centralized power
  54. magna carta
    -first document to limit power of a king
  55. parliament
    • -2 houses
    • -house of lords
    • -bishops + nobles
    • -house of commons
    • -knights + burgesses
  56. renaissance man
    -person who was phys., mentally, spiritually, & artistically fit
  57. shakespeare
    -english poet and playwrite
  58. humanism
    -belief that emphasizes the potential of ppl to perfect themselves
  59. elizabethan age
    • -reign of elizabeth in england
    • -time of english renaissance
  60. martin luther
    • -monk that went against all corruption but mostly the selling of indulgences
    • -he went against John Tetzel
    • -he wanted to reform church, not break away
  61. 95 thesis
    -document that outlined luthers disagreements with the church in front of the wittenburg castle
Card Set
World History Semester 1 Final
world history semester 1 final