Which of the following is not a discipline in chemistry?
- Chemistry is divided into several disciplines based on the type of matter being studied:
- Organic chemistry studies compounds that contain carbon. Note: Some carbon compounds are considered inorganic compounds.
- Inorganic chemistry studies mineral compounds.
- Biochemistry studies organisms capable of responding to stimuli, reproduction and growth.
- Physical chemistry studies energy systems at the macro, molecular and sub-molecular levels.
- Analytical chemistry studies matter and its chemical composition and structure.
A chemical reaction is a process that
- Rearranges the number of atoms in a substance
- Webster's New Explorer Desk Encyclopedia defines a chemical reaction as any process in which substances are changed into different ones, with different properties. The reaction rearranges the chemical bonds of the atoms in each compound involved in the process; however, the mass and number of atoms of each substance remains constant. Energy is either used or set free. The speed of the process varies depending upon the products involved. The sequence of a chemical reaction is called its mechanism. Types of reactions include: syntheses, decomposition, rearrangements, additions, eliminations and substitutions.
Examples of chemical reactions include
- Examples chemical reactions described in Webster's New Explorer Desk Encyclopedia: Oxidation-Reduction, or Redox, is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred. Adding hydrogen is reduction. Removing hydrogen is oxidation. The two occur together. Polymerization is a process in which monomers combine to produce a polymer. The process occurs naturally or by using heat or high pressure catalyst. Hydrolysis is a process in which water (HOH) and some other substance exchange groups to form two products; one has the H and the other has the OH.
Areas of scientific study include
- Natural, Social, Formal
- Natural Science is concerned with the natural world. Social Science studies human behavior. Both are based on empirical evidence, which is observable data that can be verified by other scientists working in similar situations under the same conditions. Formal science is the
- systematic study of a specific area. It is essential to developing hypotheses, theories and laws used in other scientific disciplines, ie describing how things work (natural science) and how people think and why they do what they do individually and as a society (social sciences). It is based on a priori evidence, which proceeds from a theory or assumption rather than observable phenomena. Applied science is using the results of scientific research in any of the natural, social and formal sciences and adapting it to address human needs.
The disciplines in Life Science include:
- Life science or biology is the study of living organism, their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution. The word biology is Greek. Bio means life. Logos means speech. Biology literally means to talk about life. This science studies how living things began, divides them into species, describes what they do and how they interact with and relate to each other and the rest of the natural world. The disciplines in the life sciences are grouped by the organisms they study: botany studies plants; zoology studies animals and microbiology studies microorganisms. These groups are further divided into smaller, specialized categories based on the level at which they are studied and the methods use to study them, ie biochemistry studies the chemistry of life while ecology studies how organisms interrelate in the natural world. Applied fields o the life sciences, such as medicine and genetic research, combine multiple specialized categories.
Scientific method is used to
- Investigate an event and integrate information
- Scientific method is a set of procedures used to study natural phenomena. It provides guidelines with which to pose questions, analyze data and reach conclusions. It is used to investigate an event, gain knowledge or correct earlier conclusions about the occurrence and integrate the new information with previously learned data. Researchers pose hypotheses and design experiments and studies to test them. The process must be objective, documented and shared with other researchers, so the results can be verified by replicating the study in similar situations under the same conditions. Scientific method rarely follows a predictable path. The testing of one hypothesis usually leads to other questions, which lead to the formation of other hypotheses.
Which step is not part of the scientific method?
- Earlier test are ignored.
- The steps described are not necessarily used in exactly the same way in all sciences. Sometimes they happen at the same time or in a different order and may be repeated during the course of the study but should be applied with intelligence, imagination and creativity. The following sequence is the one used most of the time:
- A question is asked about a natural phenomenon. It should be stated in specific language to focus the inquiry. The subject is thoroughly researched. Previous test results are studied. It is important to understand what the earlier experiment(s) proved or disproved. With information gleaned from researching the topic, a hypothesis is formed about a cause or effect of the event or its relationship to other occurrences. An experiment is designed and conducted to test the hypothesis and gather information. The resulting data is analyzed to determine if they support or refute the hypothesis.
The unifying principles of biology include
- Cell theory: the cell is the basic building block of all living things. It is the smallest unit of life able to function on its own. there are two kinds of cells: Prokaryotic, which are present only in bacteria and eukaryotic found in all other life forms. New cells form by dividing from existing cells.
- Evolution: as a result of natural selection and changes in the gene pool (genetic drift), inherited traits morph from one generation to the next.
- Gene Theory: the traits of all living organisms are encoded in their DNA, the chromosome component that carries genetic information. Biochemical characteristics are capable of adapting to changes in the environment; but the only way these adaptions can be transferred to the genes is through evolution (see above).
- Homeostasis: A self-regulating, physiological process that keeps biological systems stable and in proper balance internally, no matter what is happening in the external environment.
Fundamental concepts of genetic transmission refer to:
- variation in genes and mutations
- Heredity is the transfer of traits and characteristics via DNA from the parent to the offspring. It is seen in all life forms from the simplest one-cell organism to complex plant and animal species. Offspring resemble the parent but are not identical; there are subtle differences between generations. Fundamental concepts involved in the transmission of genes from one generation to the next include: Heredity events control the transmission of genetic information to the next generation. DNA is the primary molecule for storage, transmission and expression of characteristics. Variation in genes is called alleles and inheritance patterns can be predicted. Mutations cause alterations in genetic information, which produces variations in peoples. Random mutations can be affected by natural selection and genetic drift. Scientific evidence indicates a common ancestry for the origin, development and diversity of all life.
What significance to inheritance systems have in evolution?
- Epigenetic results
- Jablonka and Lamb believe that induced and acquired changes have a role in evolution. Since each inheritance systems needs more study and observation by other researchers, these theories are somewhat controversial in the scientific community. DNA genetic system believes there are non random and semi directed mutations that occur in specific locations in the DNA. These mutations can be caused by the environment and have a greater degree of adaptability than genetic mutations.
- Epigenetic inheritance believes characteristics are developed by successful generational differences rather than passed through specific genes. Behavior is transmitted by example rather than genetics: food preferences, animals learning how to forage for food, birds learning to sing, mother ducks imprinting their ducklings, tribal traditions observed in chimpanzees and macaques communities. Cultural symbols, especially human language, have evolved and expanded through necessity for survival and various other factors not easily attributed to genetic transmission.