U.S. History

  1. A Native American people that settled in the valley of Mexico in the 1200’s A.D. and later developed a powerful empire.
  2. A Native American people of the Caribbean Islands—the first group encountered by Columbus and his men when they reached the Americas.
  3. Of mixed Spanish + Native American ancestry.
  4. a system in which Spanish authorities granted colonial
    landlords the service of Native Americans as forced laborers.
  5. One of the Spaniards who traveled to the Americas as an
    explorer and conqueror in the 16th century.
  6. The transfer—beginning with Columbus’s first voyage—of plants, animals, and diseases between the western Hemisphere and the Eastern
    Columbian Exchange
  7. Conquered the Aztecs and captured Montezuma, he was in search of gold in
    1519 in Mexico.
    Hernando Cortes
  8. Founded Florida
    Ponce de Leon
  9. puritan church dominated society
    puritan societies
  10. the 1494 treaty in which Spain and Portugal agreed to divide the lands
    of the western Hemisphere and between them.
    The Treaty of Tordesillas
  11. Plymouth colony became part of this colony that was established
    by the puritans.
    Massachusetts Bay Colony
  12. founded Rhode Island, went for religious freedom and
    separation of church and state.
    Roger Williams
  13. began the King Philip’s war, when the Natives complained
    that they had food shortages, diseases and heavy casualties.
    French Colonists and the Native American Relations
  14. an economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and
    power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a
    favorable balance of trade.
  15. a person who has contracted to work for another for a limited period,
    often in return for travel expenses, shelter, and sustenance.
    Indentured Servant
  16. settled in a small, defensible peninsula 1st
    English colony in N.A. named after the king.
  17. was given land as a payment from King Charles II, later
    named Pennsylvania.
    William Penn
  18. a revival of religious feeling in the American colonies
    during the 1730s and 1750s.
    The Great Awakening
  19. a law that established a procedure for the admission of new
    states to the Union.
    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  20. an order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
    The Proclamation of 1763
  21. because of the Proclamation the colonists felt their govt. was limited. As a result of the French and Indian war, Britain’s financial crisis brought new laws that reinforced the colonists’ options.
    Limited Government
  22. the official approval of the Constitution by the states.
    Ratification of the Constitution
  23. first battle of the Revolutionary War, lasted only 15
    Battle of Lexington
  24. a pamphlet by Thomas Paine, published in 1776, that called for separation of the colonies from Britain
    "Common Sense"
  25. a document, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States.
    Articles of Confederation
  26. the provisions in the U.S. Constitution that prevent any branch of the
    U.S. government from dominating the other two branches.
    Checks and Balances
  27. support of the Constitution and of a strong national government.
  28. an opponent of a strong central government.
  29. a 1765 law in which Parliament established the first direct taxation of
    goods and services within the British colonies in North America.
    Stamp Act
  30. Marquis de Lafayette arrived to offer help with
    French Support during the American Revolution
  31. was sent by President Jefferson to explore the new territory of
    Louisiana along with Meriwether Lewis.
    William Clark
  32. helped as an interpreter and guide for the Lewis and Clark expedition.
  33. established a western boundary for the United States that extended along the sabine river from the Gulf of Mexico north to the Arkansas River and its
    Adam-Onis Treaty
  34. the forcible seizure of men for military service
  35. went with William Clark to explore the new territory of Louisiana.
    Meriwether Lewis
  36. president in 1800, was the first presidents to take office in the new federal capital, Washington D.C. Had his theory of government called
    after him.
    Thomas Jefferson
  37. the 1803 purchase by the United States of France’s Louisiana Territory—extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains—for $15
    Louisiana Purchase
  38. federalist chief justice, declared that part of Congress’s Judiciary Act
    of 1789, which would have forced Madison to hand over the papers, was
    John Marshall
  39. the Supreme Court’s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
    Judicial Review
  40. an 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional; this
    power came to be known as judicial review.
    Marbury v. Madison
  41. president in 1808, part of the most important Supreme Court decisions.
    James Madison
  42. Jefferson’s theory of government, which held that a simple government
    best suited the needs of the people.
    Jeffersonian Republicanism
  43. led one of the most prominent rebellions. August 1831, attacked four plantations and killed about 60 whites with the help of more than
    Nat Turner
  44. Former slave, who refuted the arguments against her being
    a black woman.
    Sojourner Truth
  45. a philosophical and literal movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life, and celebrated the truth found in nature and
    in personal emotion and imagination.
  46. member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in the individual.
  47. an antislavery paper
    written by William Lloyd Garrison delivered an uncompromising demand: immediate
    The Liberator
  48. movement to end slavery.
  49. ardent abolitionist held a women’s right convention in 1840.
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  50. writer, philosopher, and former Unitarian minister, began an awakening
    in New England.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson
  51. a widespread Christian movement to awaken religious
    sentiments that lasted from the 1790s to the 1830s.
    Second Great Awakening
  52. an eager reader of Garrisons paper. Escaped from Bondage to become and eloquent and outspoken critic of slavery.
    Frederick Douglass
  53. pitted Thomas Jefferson (republican) against John Adams (federalist). Jefferson Won.
    Election of 1800
  54. the marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838-1840, with thousands of
    the Cherokee dying on the way.
    Trail of Tears
  55. to give common people the chance to participate in government. New
    administrations hire their own supporters.
    Jackson's Spoils System
  56. used by settlers and Mormon Missionaries to
    escape religious persecution.
    Mormon Trail
  57. a route from independence, Missouri, to Santa
    Fe, New Mexico, used by traders in the early and mid-1800s.
    Santa Fe Trail
  58. a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by
    pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
    Oregon Trail
  59. a series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to
    maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states.
    Missouri Compromise
  60. party that began in 1846 with 87 members who wanted to go from
    Independence, Missouri to California.
    Donner Party
  61. James Marshall discovered Gold on John Sutter’s sawmill.
    Gold Rush
  62. patented by Samuel F. B. Morse
  63. the major change in the U.S. economy produced by people’s
    beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselves.
    Market Revolution
  64. 19th century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in
    Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young woman.
    Lowell Mills
  65. brings CA as a free state. Utah and New Mexico would be left
    to popular sovereignty. Fugitive slave act would be revised, would be tougher
    on runaway slaves. BAN slave auctions in Washington D.C.
    The Compromise of 1850
  66. a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue
    Popular Sovereignty
  67. a debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas on the issues of
    slavery and how to keep it out. Douglas won the senate seat, but Lincoln caught
    people’s attention for candidate for presidency in 1860.
    Lincoln Douglas Debate
  68. 24 states, 22 million people, Industrialization, Supplies (Wagons,
    horses, ships, food and railroads)
    North (UNION) Advantages for Civil War
  69. Military, Geography, More
    Experienced Generals
    South (CONFEDERATES) Advantages for Civil War
  70. Universities founded for African Americans
    Atlanta, Fisk, and Howard
  71. Southern states divided into military districts. Southern states had to pass 14th Amendment. Southern states had to give African Americans the right to vote.
    Reconstruction Act of 1867
  72. (1) The navy would blockade Southern ports, so they could neither export cotton nor import much-needed manufactured goods.
    (2) Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the
    Confederacy in two.
    (3) Union armies would capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.
    North's 3-Part Plan
  73. an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing
    the slaves in all regions behind the confederate lines.
    Emancipation Proclamation
  74. in Southern Pennsylvania, the most decisive battle of the war was fought. Began on July 1st. 28,000 confederates died and 23,000 Union men.
    Battle of Gettysburg
  75. a Northerner who moved to the south after the Civil War.
  76. a white southerner who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War.
  77. adopted in 1865, that has abolished slavery and involuntary
    Thirteenth Amendment
  78. adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the
    U.S.—including former slaves—citizens of the country and guarantees equal
    protection of the laws.
    Fourteenth Amendment
  79. adopted in 1870, that prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of their race or color or because they have previously been
    Fifteenth Amendment
  80. the first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three
    months after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run. The battle
    was a seesaw affair.
    Battle of Bull Run
  81. the bloodiest single-day battle in American History with more than
    26,000 casualties.
    Battle of Antietam
  82. 2 day total, of 20.000 casualties
    Battle of Shiloh
  83. union army won, cut confederacy in half.
    Battle of Vicksburg
  84. Union army burned everything from or belonging to the Confederacy.
    Sherman’s March
  85. 260,000 confederates died, 360,000 union soldiers died.
    Civil War Deaths
  86. town near Appotamoy, Virginia, where Lee surrendered to
    Grant on April 9th, 1865.
    Appomattox Courthouse
  87. John Wilkes Booth killed him while Lincoln was in a theatre.
    Lincoln's Assassination
  88. led the Cigar Makers’ International Union to join with
    other craft unions in 1886.
    Samuel Gompers
  89. one of the first industrial moguls to make his own fortune, his rise
    from rags to riches, along with his passion for supporting charities, made him
    a model of the American success story
    Andrew Carnegie
  90. built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other
    railroad cars on Illinois prairie. Began to build a whole city around his factory for his workers.
    George M. Pullman
  91. became a pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he established the world’s first research lab in Menlo Park. Invented the electrical vote recorder, improved the light bulb, electric lamp, motion
    picture camera, and the alkaline battery.
    Thomas A. Edison
  92. a labor leader who felt that unions should include all
    laborers—skilled and unskilled—in a specific industry. He attempted to form
    such an industrial union—the American Railway Union (ARU).
    Eugene V. Debs
  93. invented the typewriter in 1868 with the QWERTY keyboard. Sold the
    rights in 1872 for $12,000.
    Christopher Sholes
  94. proposed that the earth’s surface be divided into 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day. Created the Time Zones and the Railroad
    Professor C.F. Dowd
  95. developed the first process for producing steel inexpensively.
    Henry Bessemer
  96. investment firms who reorganized railroads
    J.P. Morgan
  97. established the corporation of Standard Oil Company, he joined with competing companies in trust agreements. Participants in a trust
    turned their stock over to a group of trustees--people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation.
    John D. Rockefeller
  98. successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near
    Titusville, Pennsylvania, that removing oil from beneath the earth’s surface became practical.
    Edwin L. Drake
  99. invented the Electric Speech Machine, and the telephone, had
    the first telephone exchange in New Haven, CT. and was part of the first long
    distance connection between Boston and New York.
    Alexander Graham Bell
  100. John Augustus Roebling built the longest suspension bridge in 1883
    Brooklyn Bridge
  101. a railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United
    States, completed in 1869.
    Transcontinental Railroad
  102. Professor C.F. Dowd proposed that the earth’s surface be divided into 24
    time zones, one for each hour of the day. The U.S. would have four, Eastern,
    Central, Mountain, Pacific.
    Railroad Times
  103. one of the inspection immigration stations, stationed in New
    York Harbor, 20% of the immigrants were detained and 2% were denied entering.
    Ellis Island
  104. all the Asian immigrants arriving to the U.S. arrived to
    Angel Island in San Francisco. About 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered through
    here, though immigrants endured harsh questioning and a long detention in
    filthy buildings while they waited to know if they were admitted or denied.
    Angel Island
  105. a law, enacted in 1882,
    that prohibited all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and
    government officials from entering the United States.
    Chinese Exclusion Act
  106. education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to
    American culture.
    Americanization Movement
  107. a multifamily urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary
  108. an officeholder’s power to appoint people—usually those who
    have helped him or her get elected—to positions in government
  109. a law, enacted in 1883, that established a bipartisan civil
    service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of the
    merit system.
    Pendleton Civil Service Act
  110. a 1907-1908 agreement by the government of Japan to limit Japanese
    emigration to the United States
    Gentlemen's Agreement
  111. an organized group that controls a political party in a city
    and offers services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and
    financial support.
    Political Machine
  112. the first African
    American to receive a doctorate from Harvard in 1895, he strongly disagreed
    with Washington’s gradual approach
    W. E. B. Du Bois
  113. an African American educator who believed that racism would end once blacks
    acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
    Booker T. Washington
  114. the right to vote
  115. the National American Woman Suffrage Association—an
    organization founded in 1890 to gain voting rights for women.
  116. one of the magazine journalists who exposed the corrupt side of business
    and public life in the early 1900’s
  117. a law enacted in 1906 to halt the sale of contaminated foods
    and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling.
    Pure Food and Drug Act
  118. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
    People—an organization founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality.
  119. Democratic Party for Election of 1912, who won election
    Woodrow Wilson
  120. Republican Party in election 1912
    William Taft
  121. Bull Moose Party in election 1912
    Teddy Roosevelt
  122. Socialist Party in election 1912
    Eugene Debs
  123. urged the U.S. to purchase the territory of Alaska in 1867,
    became known as Seward’s folly.
    William Seward
  124. the treaty ending the Spanish-America War, in which Spain
    freed Cuba, turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the United
    States, and sold the Philippines to the United States for $20 million.
    Treaty of Paris
  125. the use of sensationalized and exaggerated reporting by newspaper or
    magazines to attract readers.
    Yellow Journalism
  126. a U.S. warship that mysteriously exploded and sank in the harbor of
    Havana, Cuba, on February 15, 1898
    U.S.S. Maine
  127. Upton Sinclair's book
    The Jungle
  128. -burned over 24 hours
    -300 ppl died
    -100,000 left homeless
    -3 square miles of the city center were destroyed.
    -property loss was estimated $200 million
    -17,500 buildings destroyed
    Chicago Fire 1871
  129. -28 seconds, fire burned 4 days
    -1,000 ppl died
    -200,000 left homeless
    -5 square miles of the city destroyed
    -property loss estimated at $500 million
    -28,000 buildings destroyed
    San Francisco Earthquake 1906
Card Set
U.S. History
U.S. History 1st Semester Final