1. absorption atelectasis
    alveolar collapse that occurs when high concentrations of oxygen are given and oxygen replaces nitrogen in the alveoli; if airway obstruction occurs, the oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and the alveoli collapse.
  2. acute bronchitis
    an inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that is usually due to infection.
  3. adventitious sounds
    extra breath sounds that are not normally heard, such as crackles, rhonchi, wheezes, and pleural friction rubs.
  4. allergic rhinitis
    the reaction of the nasal mucosa to a specific allergen.
  5. α-antitrypsin
    a serum protein produced by the liver normally found in the lungs that inhibits proteolytic enzymes of white cells from lysing lung tissue; genetic deficiency of this protein can cause emphysema.
  6. apnea
    an absence of spontaneous respirations.
  7. asthma
    a chronic inflammatory lung disease that results in airflow obstruction; characterized by recurring episodes of paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing on expiration and/or inspiration caused by constriction of the bronchi, coughing, and viscous mucoid bronchial secretions.
  8. centrilobular emphysema
    type of emphysema often associated with chronic bronchitis in which respiratory bronchioles enlarge, the walls are destroyed, and the bronchioles become confluent; characterized by enlargement of air spaces in the proximal part of the acinus, primarily at the level of the respiratory bronchioles.
  9. chemoreceptor
    a sensory nerve cell that responds to a change in the chemical composition (PaCO2 and pH) of the fluid around it.
  10. chest percussion
    rhythmic percussion of a patient's chest with cupped hands to loosen retained respiratory secretions.
  11. chest physiotherapy
    a series of maneuvers including percussion, vibration, and postural drainage designed to promote clearance of excessive respiratory secretions.
  12. chronic bronchitis
    obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by excessive production of mucus and chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi, resulting in a cough with expectoration for at least 3 months of the year for more than 2 consecutive years.
  13. chronic pancreatitis
    pulmonary disease state characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by chronic bronchitis or emphysema; clinical use of the term indicates the presence of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema; includes asthma, chronic bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.
  14. chylothorax
    a condition marked by lymphatic fluid in the pleural space caused by a leak in the thoracic duct.
  15. community-acquired pneumonia
    a lower respiratory tract infection of the lung parenchyma with onset in the community or during the first 2 days of hospitalization.
  16. compliance
    a measure of the ease of expansion of the lungs and thorax.
  17. cor pulmonale
    hypertrophy of the right side of the heart, with or without heart failure, resulting from pulmonary hypertension.
  18. crackle
    short, low-pitched sounds consisting of discontinuous bubbling caused by air passing through airway intermittently occluded by mucus, unstable bronchial wall, or fold of mucosa; evident on inspiration and, at times, expiration; similar sound to blowing through a straw under water.
  19. cystic fibrosis
    an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease characterized by altered function of the exocrine glands involving primarily the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands.
  20. deviated septum
    a deflection of the normally straight nasal septum.
  21. diaphragmatic breathing
    breathing with the use of the diaphragm to achieve maximum inhalation and slow respiratory rate.
  22. dry powder inhaler
    dry powdered drug delivered by inhalation.
  23. dyspnea
    shortness of breath; difficulty breathing that may be caused by certain heart conditions, strenuous exercise, or anxiety.
  24. elastic recoil
    the tendency for the lungs to recoil or reduce in volume after being stretched or expanded.
  25. emphysema
    an abnormal condition of the pulmonary system, characterized by overinflation and destructive changes in alveolar walls.
  26. empyema
    an accumulation of purulent exudates in a body cavity, especially the pleural space, as a result of bacterial infection, such as pleurisy or tuberculosis.
  27. epistaxis
  28. esophageal speech
    a method of swallowing air, trapping it in the esophagus, and releasing it to create sound.
  29. flail chest
    instability of the chest wall resulting from multiple rib fractures.
  30. fremitus
    vibration of the chest wall produced by vocalization.
  31. hemothorax
    accumulation of blood in the pleural space.
  32. hospital-acquired pneumonia
    pneumonia occurring 48 hours or longer after hospital admission and not incubating at the time of hospitalization.
  33. hypercapnia
    greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood (PaCO2 > 45 mm Hg); also called hypercarbia.
  34. hyperreactivity
    an abnormal condition in which responses to stimuli are exaggerated.
  35. hyperresponsiveness
    excessive or exaggerated response to a stimulus; in asthma leads to bronchoconstriction in response to physical, chemical, or pharmacologic stimuli.
  36. hypocapnia
    low arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2 < 35 mm Hg); also called hypocarbia.
  37. lung abscess
    a pus-containing lesion of the lung parenchyma that results in a cavity formed by necrosis of lung tissue.
  38. mechanical receptors
    receptors located in lungs, upper airways, chest wall, and diaphragm that are stimulated by irritants, muscle stretching, and alveolar wall distortion.
  39. metered-dose inhaler
    aerosolized drug delivered in a specific amount by activating the inhaler or by inhaling.
  40. nasal polyps
    benign mucous membrane masses that form slowly in response to repeated inflammation of the sinus or nasal mucosa and project into the nasal cavity.
  41. normocapnia
    normal arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2 35 to 45 mm Hg).
  42. O2 toxicity
    a condition of oxygen overdosage caused by prolonged exposure to a high levels of oxygen; may inactivate pulmonary surfactant and lead to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  43. obstructive sleep apnea
    a condition characterized by partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing apnea and hypopnea.
  44. pancreatic insufficiency
    a condition characterized by inadequate production and secretion of pancreatic hormones or enzymes.
  45. panlobular emphysema
    type of emphysema involving distention and destruction of the entire primary respiratory lobule; usually associated with "1-antitrypsin deficiency; also called chronic hypertrophic, diffuse, generalized, panlobular, or vesicular emphysema.
  46. pleural effusion
    an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intrapleural spaces of the lungs.
  47. pleural friction rub
    creaking or grating sound from roughened, inflamed surfaces of the pleura rubbing together, evident during inspiration, expiration, or both and no change with coughing; usually uncomfortable, especially on deep inspiration.
  48. pleurisy (pleuritis)
    inflammation of the pleura.
  49. pneumoconiosis
    a general term for lung diseases caused by inhalation and retention of dust particles.
  50. pneumonia
    an acute inflammation of the lungs, often caused by inhaled pneumococci of the species Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  51. pneumothorax
    a collection of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse.
  52. postural drainage
    • the use of various positions to promote gravity drainage of bronchial secretions; coughing usually expels secretions of the trachea.
    • (28, 35)
    • pulmonary edema
    • an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs caused most commonly by heart failure; an acute, life-threatening situation in which the lung alveoli become filled with serous or serosanguineous fluid caused most commonly by heart failure.
  53. pulmonary embolism
    a thromboembolic occlusion of the pulmonary vasculature resulting from thrombi in the venous circulation or right side of the heart and from other sources, such as amniotic fluid, air, fat, bone marrow, and foreign IV material that travel as emboli until lodging in the pulmonary vessels.
  54. pulmonary hypertension
    elevated pulmonary pressure resulting from an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance to blood flow through small arteries and arterioles.
  55. pursed-lip breathing
    a technique of exhaling against pursed lips to prolong exhalation, preventing bronchiolar collapse and air trapping; done to increase expiratory airway pressure, improve oxygenation of the blood, and help prevent early airway closure.
  56. rhinoplasty
    the surgical reconstruction of the nose.
  57. rhonchi
    continuous rumbling, snoring, or rattling sounds from obstruction of large airways with secretions; most prominent on expiration; change often evident after coughing or suctioning.
  58. status asthmaticus
    a severe, life-threatening asthma attack that is refractory to usual treatment and places the patient at risk for developing respiratory failure.
  59. surfactant
    a lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension in the alveoli, reduces the amount of pressure needed to inflate the alveoli, and decreases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse.
  60. tension pneumothorax
    a pneumothorax with rapid accumulation of air in the pleural space causing severely high intrapleural pressures with resultant tension on the heart and great vessels.
  61. thoracentesis
    a surgical procedure done to remove fluid from the pleural space.
  62. thoracotomy
    surgical opening into the thoracic cavity.
  63. tidal volume
    volume of air exchanged with each breath.
  64. tracheostomy
    surgical opening into the trachea through which an indwelling tube may be inserted.
  65. tracheotomy
    a surgical incision into the trachea for the purpose of establishing an airway; performed below a blockage by a foreign body, tumor, or edema of the glottis.
  66. trigger
    a substance, object, or agent that initiates or stimulates an action; in asthma, any stimuli that initiates the IgE–mast cell mediated response resulting in the pathophysiologic responses of asthma.
  67. tuberculosis
    an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; usually involves the lungs but also occurs in the larynx, kidneys, bones, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, and meninges and can be disseminated throughout the body.
  68. vibration
    pressing on the chest with the flat of the hands while repeatedly tensing the hand and arm muscles to facilitate movement of secretions to larger airways.
  69. wheezes
    a form of rhonchus characterized by continuous high-pitched squeaking sound caused by rapid vibration of bronchial walls.
Card Set
respiratory glossary from Lewis ch 26-29