Endocrine System

  1. Thyroid gland - metabolism
    Thyroxin, T4 , T3 - Increases metabolism

    Calcitonin - lowers blood calcium
  2. Parathyroid gland - mobilizes calcium
    Parathyroid hormone - increases blood calcium
  3. Adrenal cortex - outer portion. secretes cholesterol (lipids)
    • Cortisol (glucocorticoid) - increases blood sugar
    • Aldosterone (mineralocorticoid) - increases reabsorption of Na
    • Androgen/Estrogen (gonadocorticoids) - secondary sex characteristics
  4. Adrenal Medulla - inner portion. secretes amino acids (protein)
    • Epinephrine (adrenaline) - sympathomimetic
    • Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) - sympathomimetic
  5. Pancreas - regulates blood glucose levels
    (islets of Langerhans)
    • Insulin BETA cells- decreases blood sugar (glucose-glycogen)
    • Glucagon ALPHA cells - increases blood sugar (glycogen-glucose)
  6. Pituitary gland
    Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
    Growth Hormone (GH) somatotropin- increases bone and tissue growth

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - stimulates thyroid gland and thyroxine secretion

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - stimulates adrenal cortex, especially cortisol secretion

    • Gonadotropic hormone
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Oogenesis and spermatogenesis
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH) - promotes ovulation; testosterone secretion

    Prolactin (PRL) - promotes growth of breast tissue and milk secretion
  7. Pituitary gland
    Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) vasopressin - reabsorption of water by kidney tubules

    Oxytocin - stimulates contraction of uterus during labor and childbirth
  8. Ovaries - produce the female gamete
    Estrogen - promote development of ova and female secondary sex characteristics

    Progesterone - prepares and maintains the uterus in pregnancy
  9. Testes - produce the male gametes
    Testoterone - promotes development of sperm and male secondary sex characteristics
  10. Pineal gland - biological clock
    Melatonin - thought to induce sleep
  11. Thymus gland - immune response
    Thymosin - development of immune response in newborns
Card Set
Endocrine System
Hormones & Action