- not given to the federal govt, not denied to the states, are reserved to
- the states or to the people."Later
- on, it was reversed to allow limited intrution by federal gov.
Gibbons v Ogden
- supported the supremacy of national law and stepped in to interpret
- congressional power in interstate commerce. NY
- and NJ battle over hudson river.Decision: the power of the national govt to regulate commerce
- included all commercial activity.
privileges and immunities
- states must extend the same
- legal rights to residents of other states
- are made for specific purposes,
- such as job training, highway safery....recipient has little control over how
- or where money is spent.
- automatically to all eligible recipients on the basis of established guidelines
National voter registration act
- required all states to have
- a mail-in, 'motor-voter' and agency-based registration procedures.
- gives voters the
- opportunity to have the final say on a bill that the legislature has already
Political action committee
- sponsored by interest groups, are created specifically to raise and distribute
- money to candidates running for political office.
urban political machines
- a cohesive and unified
- party organization led by a strong leader usually called the boss.
good government organizations
- also called goo goos
- advocated and eventually won structural reforms in local government
- generally oppose government acting on economic issues and assisting
- minority groups but favor government action on many moral and social issues.
- more reformminded, more interested in advocating certain issue positions
- and supporting candidates who take the same positions.
- generally believe the governmentshould act to
- assist in economically disadvantaged and minority groups by are less willing
- than conservatives to have government intervene on moral and social issues.
- more interested in winning
- elections and are therefore more willing to compromise issue positions if that
- is what it takes to win.
- call for the termination of executive branch
- agencies unless the legislature formally reviews and extends their programs.
- force counsils to have open meetings on nearly all
Jacksonian Democracy Era
- began with the election to
- the presidency of andrew jackson in 1828, the prestige of chief executives was
- enhanced; emphasized political and social equality, government by the common
- man over government by an aristocracy
- refused to make loans for
- construction in certain parts of cities they considered too risky
- approval of spending before it actually takes place and is normally done
- by the controller
- review after money is spent to see whether it was
- spent according to legislative intent and without corruption, it is the
- responsibility of the state auditor
- by state supreme courts, to
- overrule, declare unconstitutional, acts passed by state legislatures
- defendant pleads guilty in
- return for a reduced charge and most likely a less severe
- police behavior emphasized
- maintenance or order in public places, rather than law enforcement
general obligation bond
- secured by a state
- or local government's
- pledge to use legally available resources, including tax revenues, to repay
- bond holders.
- bond issued by a
- municipality to finance spending on a work project
get charge for using something, like a toll road
- A tax imposed on the
- removal of nonrenewable resources such as crude oil, condensate and
- natural gas, coalbed methane and carbon dioxide.
elementary and sec act 1965
- federal funds to school
- without enacting a national cirriculum.
- aid, welfare, shit like
- that, also for poverty stricken areas
- health program for families
- with low income and resources
dependent school districts
- ran by the state and local
no child left behind act 2001
- continuation of the 1965
- act said above
procedure where by citizens can propose new laws or changes in state constitutions and determined by their votes in a election whether the proposal will be adopted.
programs designed to prevent poverty in are financed by contributions from employees and employers. employees are then entitled to benefits. regardless of their personal wealth.
used in 34 states and the district of columbia. limit the percentage of a homeowners income that can be taken in property taxes.
makes funds available for a specific purpose state or local governments must apply to the agency in charge of adminsisering the grant to get approval. introduces competition among potential recipients and it may be that teh best proposals are the ones that are funded.
suspended literacy test as a requirement to register to vote.