POLS 237 Final

  1. 10th amendment
    • "powers
    • not given to the federal govt, not denied to the states, are reserved to
    • the states or to the people."Later
    • on, it was reversed to allow limited intrution by federal gov.
  2. Gibbons v Ogden
    • SC
    • supported the supremacy of national law and stepped in to interpret
    • congressional power in interstate commerce. NY
    • and NJ battle over hudson river.Decision: the power of the national govt to regulate commerce
    • included all commercial activity.
  3. privileges and immunities
    • states must extend the same
    • legal rights to residents of other states
  4. categorical grant
    • are made for specific purposes,
    • such as job training, highway safery....recipient has little control over how
    • or where money is spent.
  5. Formula Grant
    • distributed
    • automatically to all eligible recipients on the basis of established guidelines
  6. National voter registration act
    • required all states to have
    • a mail-in, 'motor-voter' and agency-based registration procedures.
  7. Referendum
    • gives voters the
    • opportunity to have the final say on a bill that the legislature has already
    • approved.
  8. Political action committee
    • frequently
    • sponsored by interest groups, are created specifically to raise and distribute
    • money to candidates running for political office.
  9. urban political machines
    • a cohesive and unified
    • party organization led by a strong leader usually called the boss.
  10. good government organizations
    • also called goo goos
    • advocated and eventually won structural reforms in local government
  11. conservatives
    • generally oppose government acting on economic issues and assisting
    • minority groups but favor government action on many moral and social issues.
  12. amateurs
    • more reformminded, more interested in advocating certain issue positions
    • and supporting candidates who take the same positions.
  13. liberal
    • generally believe the governmentshould act to
    • assist in economically disadvantaged and minority groups by are less willing
    • than conservatives to have government intervene on moral and social issues.
  14. professional
    • more interested in winning
    • elections and are therefore more willing to compromise issue positions if that
    • is what it takes to win.
  15. sunset laws
    • call for the termination of executive branch
    • agencies unless the legislature formally reviews and extends their programs.
  16. sunshine laws
    • force counsils to have open meetings on nearly all
    • matters.
  17. Jacksonian Democracy Era
    • began with the election to
    • the presidency of andrew jackson in 1828, the prestige of chief executives was
    • enhanced; emphasized political and social equality, government by the common
    • man over government by an aristocracy
  18. redlining
    • refused to make loans for
    • construction in certain parts of cities they considered too risky
  19. preaudit
    • approval of spending before it actually takes place and is normally done
    • by the controller
  20. post audit
    • review after money is spent to see whether it was
    • spent according to legislative intent and without corruption, it is the
    • responsibility of the state auditor
  21. judicial review
    • by state supreme courts, to
    • overrule, declare unconstitutional, acts passed by state legislatures
  22. plea bargaining
    • defendant pleads guilty in
    • return for a reduced charge and most likely a less severe
  23. watchman style
    • police behavior emphasized
    • maintenance or order in public places, rather than law enforcement
  24. general obligation bond
    • secured by a state
    • or local government's
    • pledge to use legally available resources, including tax revenues, to repay
    • bond holders.
  25. revenue bond
    • bond issued by a
    • municipality to finance spending on a work project
  26. user charge
    get charge for using something, like a toll road
  27. severance tax
    • A tax imposed on the
    • removal of nonrenewable resources such as crude oil, condensate and
    • natural gas, coalbed methane and carbon dioxide.
  28. elementary and sec act 1965
    • federal funds to school
    • without enacting a national cirriculum.
  29. public assistance
    • aid, welfare, shit like
    • that, also for poverty stricken areas
  30. medcaid
    • health program for families
    • with low income and resources
  31. dependent school districts
    • ran by the state and local
    • government
  32. no child left behind act 2001
    • continuation of the 1965
    • act said above
  33. initiative
    procedure where by citizens can propose new laws or changes in state constitutions and determined by their votes in a election whether the proposal will be adopted.
  34. social insurance
    programs designed to prevent poverty in are financed by contributions from employees and employers. employees are then entitled to benefits. regardless of their personal wealth.
  35. circuit breakers
    used in 34 states and the district of columbia. limit the percentage of a homeowners income that can be taken in property taxes.
  36. project grant
    makes funds available for a specific purpose state or local governments must apply to the agency in charge of adminsisering the grant to get approval. introduces competition among potential recipients and it may be that teh best proposals are the ones that are funded.
  37. VRA 1965
    suspended literacy test as a requirement to register to vote.
Card Set
POLS 237 Final