1. df: higher order conditioning
    Pain at the doctors office (UCS) makes a lab coat the (CS). However, after seeing a pharmacist at a drug store in a lab coat, makes the once neutral drug store into a CS for fear.
  2. law of effect
    When a response made to a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that response is more likely to occur when the stimulus is encountered again.
  3. operant conditioning
    A process in which behavior is changed by its consequences - by rewards and punishments.
  4. operant
    Has some effect on the world. When a child says "I'm hungry," the child has made an operant response that influences when food will appear.
  5. reinforcer
    A stimulus that increases the probability that the operant behavior with occur again.
  6. positive reinforcer
    Will strengthen a response if they are presented after that response occurs. Ex: food given to a hungry pigeon after it pecks a key.
  7. negative reinforcer
    The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain or noise. Ex: disappearance of a headache after Advil is taken. This increases your likelihood to take Advil in the future.
  8. escape conditioning
    The process of learning responses that stop an averse stimulus. Ex: hitting mute when a loud commercial comes on.
  9. avoidance conditioning
    The process of learning particular responses that avoid an averse stimulus. Ex: a horn sounds so a dog jumps away as he knows a shock is about to occur.
  10. discriminative conditioned stimuli
    Know flirtatious comments are welcomed on a date, but not at the office.
  11. Primary reinforcers vs. secondar reinforcers
    • primary - food, water (instinctual)
    • secondary - praise, cash money
  12. fixed/variable ratio/interval
    • FR - rat receives food after 10 lever presses
    • VR - rat receives food after an average of 10 lever presses
    • FI - one reward ever 30 seconds, no matter how many responses
    • VI - rewards to children who are in their sets when a chime sounds at variable intervals
  13. positive vs. negative punishemnt
    • positive punshihment - you burn yourself on a iron. you no longer touch hot irons
    • negative punishment - you drop your ice cream cone. you are more careful.
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