1. What is the difference between emotional expression and experience?
    • Emotional expression: showing a feeling (ie. Laughing, crying)
    • Emotional experience: feeling a certain feeling (ie. Happy, sad)
  2. Describe the James-Lange Theory of Emotion, in which the experience of emotion is a response to physiological changes in the body. Give an example of how this would work. Draw a diagram including the sensory stimulus, physiological changes in the body (expression of emotion) and emotional experience.
    • Theory: Brain takes in information about the current situation, sense out signals that cause physiological changes, sensory system reacts to physical changes or sensation emotion.
    • Example: You smile and then you feel happy
    • Diagram: Stimulus? stimulus perceived? emotional expression? emotional expression
  3. Describe the Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion the same way that you did for the James-Lange Theory.
    • Theory: Emotional expression is independent of emotional experience, emotions produced when signals reach the thalamus, before physiological changes
    • Example: You feel happy and then you smile.
    • Diagram: Stimulus? stimulus perceived? emotional experience? emotional expression
  4. Know the differences between the two theories.
    • James-Lange: emotional response follows emotional expression
    • Cannon-Bard: emotional expression follows emotional response
  5. What is the evidence supporting and against each theory?
    • Cannon support:
    • �Transection of spinal cord eliminated physical response but not emotional response
    • more than one emotion can be associated with the same physical response
    • James-Lange support:
    • �Interoceptive awareness- The awareness of our body�s autonomic function/physiological state
    • �fear and rage have been shown to be associated with distinguished physiological responses even though both involve ANS.
    • James-Lange against:
    • �Transection of spinal cord eliminated physical response but not emotional response
    • Cannon Against:
    • �unconscious emotions: sensory input can have emotional effects without being aware of stimuli
  6. Which theory does "Unconsious Emotion" support?
  7. How is Unconscious Emotion revealed? (How is it studied in the lab)
    Experiment: showing angry face quickly and then a happy face, but people still showed physical rections even though they don�t recall angry face.
  8. Which brain regions are involved in Broca's Limbic Lobe?
    Hippocampus, The cortex around the corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, cortex around the medial surface of the temporal lobe.
  9. a-Which brain regions are involved in the Papez Circuit? b-What are the anatomical connections among these regions? c-What does each region do, with respect to processing emotion? d-What is the fornix?
    • a- 1) Cingulate cortex, 2) hippocampus-fornix 4) hypothalamus 5) anterior thalamus 6)neocortex
    • b-neocortex-bidirectional connection to cingulate cortex. cingulate cortex projects to the hippocampus, hippocampus projects to the hypothalamus by way of bundle of axons called fornix. Hypothalamic effects reach cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei.
    • c- Cingulate cortex: emotional experience
    • hippocampus: emotional experience
    • neocortex: emotional coloring-fine tuning/enriching emotional experience
    • hypothalamus: emotional expression
    • anterior thalamus: emotional experience and emotional expression
    • d-bundle of axons that connect hippocampus to hypothalamus
  10. What are the criticisms of a SINGLE emotional system concept?
    • Conceptual reason: diversity of emotion- unlikely just one system and not several systems
    • Structural reasons: hippocampus is not only involved in emotion; not a one to one relationship between structure and function
  11. What does the Kluver-Bucy syndrome tell us about where in the brain emotions are processed?
    Temporal lobes play a part in aggressive tendencies and responses to fearful situations.
  12. What are the inputs and outputs (projections) of the amygdala?
    • Inputs: cortex, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, all sensory systems
    • Outputs: hypothalamus
  13. What happens when the amygdala is removed or damaged?
    • Impaired recognition of emotional expressions-inability to recognize fear in facial expression
    • Deficits associated with fear, anger, sadness, disgust
  14. What happens when the amygdala is stimulated?
    • Increased vigilance or attention (fearful state, humans)
    • Increased expression of fear and aggression (cats)
  15. Is the emotion of fear learned or innate? Describe examples to support your answer.
    Learned; lesion in amygdala gets rid of fear response
  16. What are two types of aggression and how are they expressed?
    • Predatory aggression: attacks against different species for food
    • Affective aggression: used for show, not for food
  17. What is the evidence that the amydgala is related to aggression?
    Bilateral amygdala lesion in monkeys alters dominance hierarchy�aggressive behavior is related to dominance; Amygdala can be removed to reduce human aggression
  18. What other brain region contributes to processing/experiencing aggression? What is the evidence for this?
    • Hypothalamus
    • specific lesions in posterior hypothalamus--> decreased fear and aggression behaviors; sham rage (decreased NE) reversed by small lesion in hypothalamus
  19. What is the evidence supporting a role for serotonin in processing/experiencing aggression?
    Experiment: induced aggression in rodents
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