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Generalizations
arguments with the conclusion that something is the case about all or many things on the basis of what is observed about some of them
Basic Features of Generalization
Population
sample
target characteristic
representation
strength
Population
(Generalizations)
group for which the conclusion is allegedy true
usually in the conclusion
Sample
(generalizations)
a premise or premises describing a subset of that population
group being studied
Target Characteristic
(Generalization)
main issue
the characterisitc observed in the sample and concluded to be true of the population
link btw population and sample
observed in the sample and inferred of population
Representation
(Generalizations)
critical analysis takes place
Strength
(Generalization)
give the generalization a grade
Evaluating Criteria: Representativeness
better representation of a sample, the stronger the generalizations
sample occur with the same frequency or in the same proportion as they occur in the population
implies a current knowledge-character and relevance
randomness is important
Randomness
(Representativesness)
each member of the population has an equal chance of occurring in sample to not create a biased sample
mathematically defined
Sampling Methodologies/Sample Selection and Constuction
Simple Random
: fairly homogenous; TC presumed to be evenly distributed throughout the population
Stratified Random
: heterogeneous groupings; TC not evenly distributed throughout the population
sample to be constucted
Issues Affecting Strength of a Generalization
Representativeness of Sample
- Is it a biased sample?
- Sample size too small?
- Sample fails to reflect the diversity of the population
Inverview Bias
- Do questions skew the results?
- TC not clearly definded
- survey method skews results in a particular direction
Author
Anonymous
ID
56506
Card Set
Generalizations
Description
Phi 120 Final
Updated
2010-12-16T15:39:18Z
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