Psych 301 B

  1. Explains phenomena and can be falsified, involves entities unsee. Explains something.
  2. Statement about the relationship between observable variables.
  3. If P is true than Q is true, P is true therefore Q is true.
    Modus ponens
  4. If P is true than Q is true, Q is not true, therefore P is not true.
    Modus Tollens
  5. If P is true than Q is true, Q is true, therefore P is true.
    Affirming the consequent
  6. propositional logic that is valid but not useful to science.
    Modus Ponens
  7. Propositional logic that is both valid and useful to science.
    Modus Tollens
  8. Propositional logic that is neither valid nor useful to science.
    affirming the consequent
  9. Values of the IV that the researcher chooses to use in an experiment.
    levels of the independent variable
  10. you can have causation
    Advantage of the experimental approach
  11. Scale of measurement that occurs when different entities receive different scales.
  12. Scale of measurement that occurs when the ordering of values reflects the ordering of the trait being measured.
  13. Scale of measurement that occurs when a difference of 1 on a scale represents the same amount of the trait being measured everywhere on the scale.
    Equal intervals
  14. Scale of measurement that occurs when 0 on the scale represents a complete absence of the trait being measured.
    Absolute zero
  15. Measurement scale that has only the identity property.
    Nominal scale
  16. football jerseys, zip codes
    nominal scale
  17. scale in which no arithmetic operations are meaningful
    nominal scale, ordinal scale
  18. Measurement scale that has only the identity property and the magnitude property.
    ordinal scale
  19. basketball rankings, class rankings
    ordinal scale
  20. Measurement scale that has only the identity,magnitude and equal interval properties.
    interval scale
  21. Fahrenheit, Celsius,
    interval scale
  22. scale that can be added and subtracted with meaning
    interval scale
  23. Measurement scale that has the identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and absolute zero.
    ratio scale
  24. weight in pounds, # correct on test, Calvin temp. age
    ratio scale
  25. scale where all arithmetic operations are allowed
    ratio scale
  26. Occurs when all members in a population have equal opportunity of being chosen for the experiment.
    random selection
  27. occurs when every member in an experiment has equal chance to be assigned to each level of the IV or to each treatment order.
    random assignment
  28. An experiment in which the IV is manipulated, but there is no random assignment.
    Quasi Experiment
  29. graph showing the number of times each score occurred in an experiment
    frequency distribution
  30. a distribution that is symmetrical and bell shaped.
    Normal distribution
  31. distribution that has extreme high scores and in which the mean is higher than the median
    Positively skewed distribution, the mean is higher than the median.
  32. a distribution that has extreme low scores and in which the mean is lower than the mean
    negatively skewed distribution
  33. formula for sum of squares
  34. performance with the DV changes due to experience
    practice effects
  35. change in behavior due to becoming aware of the manipulation
    sensitization effects
  36. happens when the effects of one treatment still persist when another in introduced
    carry-over effects
  37. method of assigning subjects to orders of IV so across subject practice effects are balanced
  38. function of a Latin square
    counterbalancing practice effects
  39. extent to which the experiment provides a valid test of the relationship between the IV and DV
    Internal validity
  40. probability of making a type I error
  41. probability of making a type II error
  42. Probability that a given experiment will find an effect of the IV on the DV if an effect exist.
    statistical power
  43. Can't prove that the IV has no effect on the DV.
    Cant prove the null hypothesis
  44. When extreme values of a variable fall closer to the mean when re-tested
    Regression to the mean
  45. how is the logic of an experiment ruined by confounds
    It is impossible to know whether or not the effect on the DV was due to the IV or due to confound.
  46. Extent to which results apply outside of the research.
    External validity
  47. aspects of a study that indicate to the subject how they are suppose to respond
    Demand characteristics
  48. Subject changes behavior due to unintentional cues from the experimenter.
    Rosenthal effect/ experimenter expectancy effect
  49. Subject changes behavior due to the expectancy that a change should occur.
    Placebo Effect
  50. what do single blind and double blind procedures help overcome.
    Single- placebo, double- Rosenthal and placebo
  51. Subject changes behavior due to the knowledge that they are being observed.
    Hawthorne effect
  52. The effect on the DV is due to the novelty of the IV and not the inherent quality of the IV itself.
    Novelty effect
  53. A type of naturalistic observation in which the researcher become part of the group being observed.
    Participant Observation
  54. Measures the variability in the DV due to error and the IV in an ANOVA.
    MS treat
  55. Measures the variability in the DV due to error in an ANOVA.
  56. Measures the whether or not the IV has an effect on the DV in an ANOVA
  57. A within subject experiment in which performance is measured both before and after IV manipulation.
    time series design
  58. Time series design in which performance is measured only once before and once after.
    Single Group, Pretest -Posttest design
  59. A time series design in which several measurements of the DV are made both before and after IV manipulation.
    interrupted time series design
  60. A design in which a pretest and a post test are given to two non-randomly assigned groups of subjects. The difference between the pretest and post test score serves as the DV.
    non-equivalent before and after design
  61. Design in which the researcher uses archival data to study an event that occurred in the past.
    Ex post Facto design
  62. A design in which the behavior is reported before treatment. Then the treatment is stopped to see if the behavior reverts.
    Reversal design
  63. Single subject research in which the behavior is recorded before treatment, treatment is administered and behavior measured, another treatment is administered and behavior measured again. Repeated multiple times. One behavior multiple treatments.
    multielement design
  64. Single subject research in which several behaviors are monitored. Treatment to one is administered, does behavior change relative to others? Than repeated for other behaviors. Multiple behaviors, one treatment.
    Multiple baseline design
  65. Statistic used to indicate the strength and direction of linear relationship between two variables.
    Correlation Coefficient
  66. Possible values of a correlation coefficient
    +1.0 to -1.0
  67. When one variable tends to increase so does the other, or vice verse
    positive relationship
  68. When one variable tends to increase the other tends to decrease, and vice versa.
    Negative relationship
  69. Formula for proportion of variance accounted for
  70. proportion of variability that can be predicted from knowing the value of another.
    proportion of variance accounted for
  71. Floor or ceiling effects on one variable in a correlation.
    range restriction
  72. Sample the first people you see without regard to characteristics.
    convenience sampling
  73. Sample the first people you see based off of characteristics or pre-specified conditions.
    Quota sampling
  74. Randomly select a % of people from a list of population.
    simple random sampling
  75. sampling where you divide population into sublist, but have random sample mechanism
    stratified random sampling
  76. sampling where you have stages to choose populations, 2 or more random samplings
    • multistage sampling
    • Ex- first by city, than by name
  77. best use of survey according to prof.
    To compare changes and responses over time and across different demographics.
  78. What does the margin of error in survey research mean?
    That there is a 95% chance that if conducted on total population, in the same way as the sample, 95% of results would be within the sample.
  79. Always Pg. 1, author's names, authors affiliation
    title page
  80. summary of the article, on pg 2, includes problem being investigated, subjects,research method, findings, conclusion
  81. pg 3, introduce problem, review previous research/literature, state purpose,
  82. recipe for conducting the research, divided into 3 sections: participants, apparatus or equipment, procedure, how to replicate
    the method
  83. the data collected, graphs/tables, means and variability, results of stat test,
  84. relates data you collected to the research question. How data bear upon question posed in the intro, the theoretical implications, any shortcomings, and future research
  85. the status of an article that has been accepted for publication, but which has not yet appeared in the journal.
    in press
  86. a typeset copy of the article that is sent to the author for final approval
  87. How does the Nuremberg code of ethics differ from the APA code?
    The APA code differs in that it allows for certain forms of deceit and coercion to be applied to potential research subjects that the Nuremberg does not.
  88. Factors determining statistical power?
    • Correlation between the IV levels
    • Alpha Level
    • Variability in the DV
    • Effect Size
    • Sample Size
  89. Why do an ANOVA instead of multiple t-test?
    • Multiple t-test take more work
    • multiple t-test inflate the type I error rate
  90. Why correlation can not be used to determine causation?
    • Can not tell which is the cause and which is the effect (directionality problem)
    • There could be a third variable having an effect( third variable problem)
  91. What are the mathematical limitation of correlations?
    • poor at capturing non-linear relationships
    • they are greatly affected by extreme scores
    • can be lowered by range restriction
  92. disadvantages on non parametric statistics?
    • tend to be overly conservative
    • no non parametric tests exist for some research designs
  93. Mathematical relationship between t and F distributions
    at any alpha level: (t(x)^2 or t^2(x) = f(1,x) for any X
  94. require assumption about the distribution of the DV, that it is normal, in order to obtain correct p-values.
    parametric statistics
  95. Class of tests that do not assume the DV is normally distributed.
    Non parametric Statistical tests
  96. Advantages of non parametric statistics
    • less restrictive assumptions
    • often easier to calculate than parametric tests
  97. Factors to consider when evaluating polls?
    • question wording
    • question order
    • lack of full disclosure
    • bias in choosing the sample
    • ??
  98. problems with all single subject experimental designs
    • experimenter bias
    • placebo effects
    • generalization
    • likely fact I and type II errors
  99. Ethical principles when conducting psychological research?
    • subjects should agree to participate
    • no coercion
    • confidential
    • gains to science outweigh any harm
    • all reports accurate
  100. Experiments need to have these 2 things?
    • random assignment
    • manipulation of the IV
  101. naturalistic observation
    research technique in which the researcher simply observes and describes behavior.
  102. correlational aproach
    research technique in which the researcher determines whether variables are related without manipulating the variables
  103. Independent variable
    variable for which the researcher chooses values
  104. dependent variable
    variable the researcher measures to determine the effects of the IV
  105. Between subjects design
    research design in which each subject is assigned to one level of the IV
  106. within subject design
    research design in which each subject is assigned to all levels of the IV
  107. Type I error
    Finding an effect of the IV on the DV when in reality no such effect exist.
  108. Type II error
    Failing to find an effect of the IV on the DV when in reality there is an effect
  109. confound
    a nuisance variable that varies reliably with the IV
  110. factorial design
    A design in which there is more than one independent variable and each level of every independent variable is present at every level of the other independent variables.
  111. interaction
    occurs when the effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable in a factorial design changes depending on the levels of another independent variable.
  112. nuisance variables
    any variables other than the IV that have an effect on the DV
  113. floor effects
    occurs when the values of the DV are so low that they are unlikely to be effected by the IV
  114. ceiling effects
    occurs when the values of the DV are so high that they are unlikely to be effected by the IV
  115. Main effect
    the independent effect of one IV on the DV in a factorial design.
  116. Response acquiescence effect
    the tendency for subjects to respond yes to question that they have thought little about
  117. random factor
    an IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible values
  118. fixed factor
    an IV whose levels were chosen non-randomly
  119. Research in which the researcher is directly asking questions
    survey research
  120. Can you prove a scientific theory false? true?
    Yes, no
Card Set
Psych 301 B
research methodology