
Explains phenomena and can be falsified, involves entities unsee. Explains something.
Theory

Statement about the relationship between observable variables.
Hypothesis

If P is true than Q is true, P is true therefore Q is true.
Modus ponens

If P is true than Q is true, Q is not true, therefore P is not true.
Modus Tollens

If P is true than Q is true, Q is true, therefore P is true.
Affirming the consequent

propositional logic that is valid but not useful to science.
Modus Ponens

Propositional logic that is both valid and useful to science.
Modus Tollens

Propositional logic that is neither valid nor useful to science.
affirming the consequent

Values of the IV that the researcher chooses to use in an experiment.
levels of the independent variable

you can have causation
Advantage of the experimental approach

Scale of measurement that occurs when different entities receive different scales.
identity

Scale of measurement that occurs when the ordering of values reflects the ordering of the trait being measured.
Magnitude

Scale of measurement that occurs when a difference of 1 on a scale represents the same amount of the trait being measured everywhere on the scale.
Equal intervals

Scale of measurement that occurs when 0 on the scale represents a complete absence of the trait being measured.
Absolute zero

Measurement scale that has only the identity property.
Nominal scale

football jerseys, zip codes
nominal scale

scale in which no arithmetic operations are meaningful
nominal scale, ordinal scale

Measurement scale that has only the identity property and the magnitude property.
ordinal scale

basketball rankings, class rankings
ordinal scale

Measurement scale that has only the identity,magnitude and equal interval properties.
interval scale

Fahrenheit, Celsius,
interval scale

scale that can be added and subtracted with meaning
interval scale

Measurement scale that has the identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and absolute zero.
ratio scale

weight in pounds, # correct on test, Calvin temp. age
ratio scale

scale where all arithmetic operations are allowed
ratio scale

Occurs when all members in a population have equal opportunity of being chosen for the experiment.
random selection

occurs when every member in an experiment has equal chance to be assigned to each level of the IV or to each treatment order.
random assignment

An experiment in which the IV is manipulated, but there is no random assignment.
Quasi Experiment

graph showing the number of times each score occurred in an experiment
frequency distribution

a distribution that is symmetrical and bell shaped.
Normal distribution

distribution that has extreme high scores and in which the mean is higher than the median
Positively skewed distribution, the mean is higher than the median.

a distribution that has extreme low scores and in which the mean is lower than the mean
negatively skewed distribution

formula for sum of squares
E(xXbar)^2

performance with the DV changes due to experience
practice effects

change in behavior due to becoming aware of the manipulation
sensitization effects

happens when the effects of one treatment still persist when another in introduced
carryover effects

method of assigning subjects to orders of IV so across subject practice effects are balanced
counterbalancing

function of a Latin square
counterbalancing practice effects

extent to which the experiment provides a valid test of the relationship between the IV and DV
Internal validity

probability of making a type I error
alpha

probability of making a type II error
beta

Probability that a given experiment will find an effect of the IV on the DV if an effect exist.
statistical power

Can't prove that the IV has no effect on the DV.
Cant prove the null hypothesis

When extreme values of a variable fall closer to the mean when retested
Regression to the mean

how is the logic of an experiment ruined by confounds
It is impossible to know whether or not the effect on the DV was due to the IV or due to confound.

Extent to which results apply outside of the research.
External validity

aspects of a study that indicate to the subject how they are suppose to respond
Demand characteristics

Subject changes behavior due to unintentional cues from the experimenter.
Rosenthal effect/ experimenter expectancy effect

Subject changes behavior due to the expectancy that a change should occur.
Placebo Effect

what do single blind and double blind procedures help overcome.
Single placebo, double Rosenthal and placebo

Subject changes behavior due to the knowledge that they are being observed.
Hawthorne effect

The effect on the DV is due to the novelty of the IV and not the inherent quality of the IV itself.
Novelty effect

A type of naturalistic observation in which the researcher become part of the group being observed.
Participant Observation

Measures the variability in the DV due to error and the IV in an ANOVA.
MS treat

Measures the variability in the DV due to error in an ANOVA.
MSwithin

Measures the whether or not the IV has an effect on the DV in an ANOVA
F

A within subject experiment in which performance is measured both before and after IV manipulation.
time series design

Time series design in which performance is measured only once before and once after.
Single Group, Pretest Posttest design

A time series design in which several measurements of the DV are made both before and after IV manipulation.
interrupted time series design

A design in which a pretest and a post test are given to two nonrandomly assigned groups of subjects. The difference between the pretest and post test score serves as the DV.
nonequivalent before and after design

Design in which the researcher uses archival data to study an event that occurred in the past.
Ex post Facto design

A design in which the behavior is reported before treatment. Then the treatment is stopped to see if the behavior reverts.
Reversal design

Single subject research in which the behavior is recorded before treatment, treatment is administered and behavior measured, another treatment is administered and behavior measured again. Repeated multiple times. One behavior multiple treatments.
multielement design

Single subject research in which several behaviors are monitored. Treatment to one is administered, does behavior change relative to others? Than repeated for other behaviors. Multiple behaviors, one treatment.
Multiple baseline design

Statistic used to indicate the strength and direction of linear relationship between two variables.
Correlation Coefficient

Possible values of a correlation coefficient
+1.0 to 1.0

When one variable tends to increase so does the other, or vice verse
positive relationship

When one variable tends to increase the other tends to decrease, and vice versa.
Negative relationship

Formula for proportion of variance accounted for
r^2

proportion of variability that can be predicted from knowing the value of another.
proportion of variance accounted for

Floor or ceiling effects on one variable in a correlation.
range restriction

Sample the first people you see without regard to characteristics.
convenience sampling

Sample the first people you see based off of characteristics or prespecified conditions.
Quota sampling

Randomly select a % of people from a list of population.
simple random sampling

sampling where you divide population into sublist, but have random sample mechanism
stratified random sampling

sampling where you have stages to choose populations, 2 or more random samplings
 multistage sampling
 Ex first by city, than by name

best use of survey according to prof.
To compare changes and responses over time and across different demographics.

What does the margin of error in survey research mean?
That there is a 95% chance that if conducted on total population, in the same way as the sample, 95% of results would be within the sample.

Always Pg. 1, author's names, authors affiliation
title page

summary of the article, on pg 2, includes problem being investigated, subjects,research method, findings, conclusion
abstract

pg 3, introduce problem, review previous research/literature, state purpose,
introduction

recipe for conducting the research, divided into 3 sections: participants, apparatus or equipment, procedure, how to replicate
the method

the data collected, graphs/tables, means and variability, results of stat test,
results

relates data you collected to the research question. How data bear upon question posed in the intro, the theoretical implications, any shortcomings, and future research
discussion

the status of an article that has been accepted for publication, but which has not yet appeared in the journal.
in press

a typeset copy of the article that is sent to the author for final approval
galleyproofs

How does the Nuremberg code of ethics differ from the APA code?
The APA code differs in that it allows for certain forms of deceit and coercion to be applied to potential research subjects that the Nuremberg does not.

Factors determining statistical power?
 Correlation between the IV levels
 Alpha Level
 Variability in the DV
 Effect Size
 Sample Size

Why do an ANOVA instead of multiple ttest?
 Multiple ttest take more work
 multiple ttest inflate the type I error rate

Why correlation can not be used to determine causation?
 Can not tell which is the cause and which is the effect (directionality problem)
 There could be a third variable having an effect( third variable problem)

What are the mathematical limitation of correlations?
 poor at capturing nonlinear relationships
 they are greatly affected by extreme scores
 can be lowered by range restriction

disadvantages on non parametric statistics?
 tend to be overly conservative
 no non parametric tests exist for some research designs

Mathematical relationship between t and F distributions
at any alpha level: (t(x)^2 or t^2(x) = f(1,x) for any X

require assumption about the distribution of the DV, that it is normal, in order to obtain correct pvalues.
parametric statistics

Class of tests that do not assume the DV is normally distributed.
Non parametric Statistical tests

Advantages of non parametric statistics
 less restrictive assumptions
 often easier to calculate than parametric tests

Factors to consider when evaluating polls?
 question wording
 question order
 lack of full disclosure
 bias in choosing the sample
 ??

problems with all single subject experimental designs
 experimenter bias
 placebo effects
 generalization
 likely fact I and type II errors

Ethical principles when conducting psychological research?
 subjects should agree to participate
 no coercion
 confidential
 gains to science outweigh any harm
 all reports accurate

Experiments need to have these 2 things?
 random assignment
 manipulation of the IV

naturalistic observation
research technique in which the researcher simply observes and describes behavior.

correlational aproach
research technique in which the researcher determines whether variables are related without manipulating the variables

Independent variable
variable for which the researcher chooses values

dependent variable
variable the researcher measures to determine the effects of the IV

Between subjects design
research design in which each subject is assigned to one level of the IV

within subject design
research design in which each subject is assigned to all levels of the IV

Type I error
Finding an effect of the IV on the DV when in reality no such effect exist.

Type II error
Failing to find an effect of the IV on the DV when in reality there is an effect

confound
a nuisance variable that varies reliably with the IV

factorial design
A design in which there is more than one independent variable and each level of every independent variable is present at every level of the other independent variables.

interaction
occurs when the effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable in a factorial design changes depending on the levels of another independent variable.

nuisance variables
any variables other than the IV that have an effect on the DV

floor effects
occurs when the values of the DV are so low that they are unlikely to be effected by the IV

ceiling effects
occurs when the values of the DV are so high that they are unlikely to be effected by the IV

Main effect
the independent effect of one IV on the DV in a factorial design.

Response acquiescence effect
the tendency for subjects to respond yes to question that they have thought little about

random factor
an IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible values

fixed factor
an IV whose levels were chosen nonrandomly

Research in which the researcher is directly asking questions
survey research

Can you prove a scientific theory false? true?
Yes, no

