1. fixed action pattern
    unlearned acts, genetically determined
  2. sign stimulus
    an external sensory stimulus
  3. kinesis
    change in activity in response to a stimulus
  4. taxis
    orientated movement, towards or away from a stimulus
  5. signal
    a stimulus transmitted from one animal to another
  6. pheromones
    chemical communication, could be sexual
  7. operant conditioining
    an animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors w/ a reward or punishment
  8. agonistic behavior
    an often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource
  9. innate behavior
    behavior that is developmentally fixed in all individuals in a population
  10. classical conditioning
    any random stimulus becomes associated w/ a particular outcome
  11. habituation
    loss of responsiveness to a stimulus over time
  12. imprinting
    learned innate component, happens in a specific phase/stage
  13. associative learning
    ability to learn/associate
  14. optimal foraging
    animals do this to maximize their energy when eating
  15. altruism
    selfless task
  16. coefficient of relatedness
    probability of two relatives to share the same gene
  17. hamilton's rule
    natural selection favors altruism when the benefit of the recipient times the coefficient of relatedness is larger than the cost of the person doing the task
  18. levels of hierarchy
    • organismal
    • population
    • community
    • ecosystem
    • landscape
    • global
  19. landscape ecology
    study of factors that are exchanged between ecologies
  20. biotic factors
    • predation
    • competition
    • parasitism
  21. what causes the earth's seasons?
    the earth's axis and sunlight intensity
  22. photic
    sun can penetrate water
  23. aphotic
    sun can't get to water (deepest part of the ocean)
  24. seasonal turnover
    uniform temperature, nutrients spread around
  25. oligotrophic
    • oxygen rich
    • nutrient poor
  26. eutrophic
    • nutrient rich
    • oxygen poor
  27. climograph
    mean temperature vs. mean precipitation
  28. tropical forest
  29. deserts
    • little precipitation
    • varying temperature
  30. savannah
    • constant temperature
    • seasonal rainfall
  31. temperate grassland
    • seasonal precipitation
    • cold winters
    • hot summers
  32. tundra
    • long winters
    • cool summers
  33. population ecology
    group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
  34. desnity
    number of individuals in a unit area/volume
  35. clumped dispersion
    • most common (found in humans)
    • individuals aggregate in patches
    • influenced by resource availability and behavior
  36. uniform dispersion
    • individuals are evenly spaced
    • influenced by social interactions such as territoriality
  37. random dispersion
    position of each individual is independent of other individuals
  38. cohort
    group of individuals of the same age
  39. life histories
    • 3 basic variables:
    • When production begins
    • how often the organism reproduces
    • how many offspring are produced
  40. Semelparity
    species that exhibit this reproduce a single time then die
  41. Iteroparity
    species that exhibit this produce offspring repeatedly over time
  42. immigration and emigration
    affect increase/decrease in population
  43. birth and death
    affect increase/decrease in population
  44. growth rate
    equals birth rate minus death rate (immigration and emigration ignored)
  45. zero population growth
    occurs when the birth rate equals the death rate
  46. Exponential growth
    J-shaped curve
  47. logistic growth
    • S-shaped curve
    • carrying capacity (k)
  48. carrying capacity
    how much a population can hold
  49. When does growth stop?
    When the population size (n) equals the carrying capacity (K)
  50. Density dependent populations
    death rates rise/birth rates fall w/ population density
  51. density independent populations
    birth rate and death rate do not change w/ population density
  52. density dependent factors
    are an example of negative feedback that regulates population growth
  53. community ecology
    group of populations living close enough to interact
  54. competitive exclusion principle
    two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist in the same place
  55. ecological niche
    two species cannot coexist permanently in the same community if their niches are the same
  56. resource partitioning
    ecologically similar species can coexist in a community if there are one or more significant differences in their niches
  57. cryptic coloration
    • camouflage
    • makes prey difficult to spot
    • predator hard to see
  58. aposematic coloration
    warns predators to stay away from prey
  59. batesian mimicry
    harmless species mimics a harmful species
  60. mullerian mimicry
    two or more harmful species mimic each other
  61. species richness
    total # of species in the community
  62. relative abundance
    proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
  63. tropic levels
    • relationships between animals and what they eat
    • Top to bottom:
    • Quaternary consumers
    • tertiary consumers
    • secondary consumers
    • primary consumers
    • primary producers
  64. energetic hypothesis
    length is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the food change
  65. dynamic stability hypothesis
    • long food chains are less stable than short ones
    • 5=food chain length
  66. dominant species
    species that are most abundant or have the highest biomass and exert powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species
  67. keystone species
    are not necessarily abundant in a community and exert strong control by their ecological roles, or niches
  68. foundation species
    exert control by causing physical changes in the environment, referred to as ecosystem "engineers"
  69. disturbance
    • an event that changes a community (fires, floods)
    • removes organisms from a community
    • alters resource availability
  70. ecological succession
    • sequence of changes that occur after a disturbance
    • primary-occurs where no soil exists when succession begins
    • secondary-begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance
  71. island equilibrium model
    • two factors that determine the number of species on an "island" are the rate oat which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which species become extinct on the island
    • **area and distance from mainland
  72. biodiversity
    less when island is small and distance from mainland is large
  73. 1st law of thermodynamics
    energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred or transformed
  74. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    some energy is lost as heat
  75. importance of decomposition
    detritovores-primary source of decomposition
  76. primary production
    • amount of light energy captured by autotrophs that is converted to chemicals during a given time period
    • amount of photosynthetic production
  77. secondary production
    amount of chemical energy in a consumer's food that is converted to energy
  78. GPP
    • gross primary production
    • equal to total primary production
  79. NPP
    • net primary production
    • equal to GPP minus the energy used by primary producers for respiration
  80. trophic levels & efficiency
    • **10% rule available to next level
    • sunlight=1,000,000>primary producers=10,000
  81. nutrient cycles
    involves both biotic and abiotic components
  82. eutrophication
    • process in which a body of water is enriched w/ a nutrient
    • phosphorous stimulates growth, depletes oxygen and water
  83. biological magnification
    food ingests itself and other predators eat others
  84. greenhouse effect
    caused by atmospheres CO2 increase
  85. ozone depletion
    • ozone layer filters out U-V radiation
    • layer is depleting because of chemicals
  86. evotranspiration
    amount of water that is annually transpired by plants and evaporated by a landscape
  87. use data to test theories
    • data is hard to prove
    • data supports theories but never proves them right or wrong
Card Set
final exam