Botany 101 Final Exam Study Guide.txt

  1. 6 Kingdoms Covered in Lecture
    • 1. Monera- Bacteria
    • 2. Protista- Algae
    • 3. Plantae
    • 4. Fungi- Mushrooms
    • 5. Animalia
  2. Sequence of classification from kingdom down to species level
    Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  3. Binomial system of nomenclature
    • Classification- system of naming is called binomial nomenclature
    • *binomial name: species
  4. Proper way to write a scientific name
    • Canabis sativa
    • *C: genes
    • *s: species
  5. Common names for 5 phylla of kingdom protista and important uses or effects each has for humans
    • 1. CHLOROPHYTA: Green Algae
    • - chlorophyll a and b
    • - ancestor of true plants
    • - unicellular
    • - multicellular-sea lettuce
    • - Fresh or salt water

    • 2. CHROMOPHYTA: Yellow Green
    • -Diatoms:
    • -Single celled
    • -Photosynthetic
    • -Silica cell wall
    • -chlorophyll a and c
    • -Diatomaceus Earth
    • -Water Filteration
    • -Brown Algae
    • -Phaeophycae
    • -Chlorophyll a and c
    • -Algin- gelatinous starch
    • -Alginates used in food and other products
    • (thinkeners)

    • 3. DINOPHYTA: Dinoflagellates
    • -single cells-with a whip like flagella
    • -photosythetic- chlorophylls a and c
    • -causing Red Tides and ciguatera

    • 4. RHODOPHYTA: Red Algae
    • -Macro Algae
    • -Photosynthetic- chlorophyll a and d
    • -Agar Food Reserve - biomedical research
  6. Which protista phyla is most closely related to land plants?
  7. Basic structure of a macro-algae
    Image Upload 1
  8. Alternation of generations
    • Sporophyte-diploid phase->
    • Meiosis->
    • Spores-> haploid phase->
    • Gametophyte->
    • Gametes-male and female->
    • fuse {fertilization}- zygote->
    • diploid-> =
  9. Why bryophytes are in the kingdom plantae?
    • Bryophytes "mosses" are in the primitive group
    • -no vascular system
  10. What phyla do liverworts and mosses belong?
    • Bryophytes
    • Liverwort- hepaticaphyta
    • Bryophyta- mosses
  11. Part of a moss that is a gametophyte and part that is a sporophyte
    • Gametophyte- main body
    • Sporophyte- attached to the gametophyte
  12. What sporophytes produce, what gametophytes produce?
    • Sporophytes- spores
    • Gametophytes-
  13. Lower vascular plants: know Some members of the Psilotophyta, Lycophyta, and Equisetophyta
    • Psilotophyla- Psilotum -Moa (wiskbroom)
    • Lycopodiophyla- Lycopodia -waewaeiole (club moss)
    • selaginella- spike moss
    • Equisetophyla- Horsetail ferns/ scouring rushes
  14. Which LVP is most primitive and why?
    Moa- sporangia, first plant to have a vascular system
  15. Features that separate LVPs from Bryophytes

  16. Unique features of the phylum Polypodiophyta

  17. Life cycle of a fern: sporophyte, sori, spores, gametophyte, archegonium, antheridium, gametes and zygote
    see notes

  18. How is a seed more advantageous than spores for life on dry land?
    seeds can go dormant
  19. Major differences between ferns and gymnosperms

  20. Familiar with members in the 4 phyla discussed in lecture?
    • 1. Pinophyta: Redwoods
    • 2. Ginkophyta: Maiden hair tree
    • 3. Cycodophyta: cycads
    • 4: Gnetophyta: Mormon tea (Ephredra)
  21. Life cycle of a pine tree: sporophyte, male and female cones, gametophyte, gametes (sperm and egg), zygote
    see notes

  22. Economic importance of several Gymnosperms as discussed in class.
    • Pinophyta- turpintine- paint thinner, Rosin- wax
    • wood, paper, -Pine nuts, pesto, violines onther in struments Amber Fossilized Resin
  23. Features that Gymnosperms and Angiosperms have in common.
    seed bearing
  24. Features that are unique to Angiosperms

  25. Basic structure of a flower
    see notes

  26. Life cycle of a typical Angiosperms. Pistil, ovules, stamen, pollen, stigma, pollen tube nucleus, double fertilization, embryo, endosperm, seed code.
    see notes

  27. Difference between pollination and fertilization
    Pollination: when pollen reaches stigma

    Fertilization: when sperm fuses with eggs
  28. Why flowers produce nectar.
    flower provides an incentive "nectar" for pollinator
  29. Definition of a fruit; superior vs inferior ovarles
    Superior: when ovary is above petals and sepals

    Inferior: Below sepals and petals
  30. Benefit of having a fleshy fruit and ways that seeds are dispersed.

  31. 5 main times of fleshy fruits as discussed in class
    • Berry- Banana
    • Aggragate- Raspberries
    • Pome- Apple
    • Multiple- Pineapple
    • Specialized Berries- Pepo- gourds, watermelon, pumpkins
    • -Hesperidium-citrus
  32. 3 types of dry dehiscent fruits and 3 types of dry indehiscent fruits
    • 3 Types of dry DEHISCENT fruits: splits at maturity
    • - Legume-*splits on 2 sides* Pea Pod, Koa, Albizia
    • -Follicle- *splits along one side* milkweed, african tulip, achiote
    • -Capsule- *splits along 2 or more sides* Autograph tree, Mahgbany

    • 3 types of dry INDEHISCENT fruits:
    • -Achene- sunflower seed
    • -Carypis- grass fruit exp. rice, wheat, corn
    • -Nut- Acorns, Filberts, chestnuts, Hard Periderm covering seed
  33. Know origins of economically important plants as dicussed in lecture
    • North America: Sunflowers, tobacco
    • Central America and South America: pumpkins, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, pineapple, papaya, guava, vanilla, avocados, ALL spice, quinoa, peanuts, coca leaves, peyote
    • Africa: sweet melons, yams, sorghum, millet, coffee, col nut, okra, miracle berry
    • Near East: Barley, wheat, peas, lentils, chickpeas, asperagus, beets, carrots, olives, garlic, stone fruit, cherries, apricot, broccoli, lettuce, cabbage, parsely, pistachio, flax, opium, apples, pears
    • China: Peaches, persimmons, lychee, soybeans, mustard green, buckwheat, ginger, gingseng, tea, cucumbers, horse raddish
    • South East Asia: Rice, taro, sugar cane, mango, citrus, bananas, coconut, bread fruit, clothes, nutmeg, black pepper, mung beans, sesame seeds, cinnamon, cloves, mulberry, pakalolo, betel nut, kava
  34. Definitions of ecology, population, community and ecosystem
    1. Ecology: the interaction of plans and animals(Biotic) with each other with their physical environment (Abiotic)

    2. Population: a group of individuals of the species level same species in a given area ex: all sliver swords on Mauna Loa

    • 3. Community: ALL species in a given area
    • -whole biotic community
    • -plant community
    • -birds community
    • -insects community

    4. Ecosystem: system of interacting organisms with their physical environment
  35. Components of food web: producers, primary and secondary consumers, scavengers and decomposers
    1.Tertiary Consumers: Animals that eat secondary consumers

    2. Secondary Consumers: Animals that eat herbivores "carnivores"

    3. Primary Consumers: Herbivores

    4. Producers: Plants, Photosynthetic algae/ bacteria

    • *Decomposers: scavengers, fungi, bacteria- Detrivores- worms
    • -breakdown dead organisms and waste products
  36. Sucession of communities, primary succession and secondary succession
    • Succession of communities:
    • -Colonization of an area by the biotic community after disturbance or new land formation

    • Primary:
    • - colonization where no life existed before
    • -volcano- lava flows
    • -landslides- exposing new rock (substrate)
    • -land uncovered by glacial retreat

    • Secondary:
    • -Re-colonization after disturbance
    • -Fires, storms, tsunamis, human disturbance
  37. Pioneer plants vs late growth plants
    • Pioneer Plants:
    • -Air dispersed seeds or spores (small seeds)
    • -Produce many seeds/spores
    • -Short lived/ fast growing
    • -shade intolerant "like light"

    • Climax Species "late succession":
    • -larger seeds
    • -animal pollinated
    • -Animal seed dispersal
    • -Shade tolerant
    • -Slow growing
    • -Long lived
  38. What is mycology?
    study of fungi
  39. Features of the Kingdom FUNGI- what mushroom cell walls are made of
    • -Cell walls made of CHITIN
    • -body or thallus is formed by hyphae- tubular threads may or may not have cell walls
    • -mass of hyphae is a mycelium typically lives in soil, rotting veggies
    • -Decomposition- major ecological role
    • -Reproduction separate haploid and diploid phases
  40. Important economic members of the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidomycota, and Deuteromycota
    Zygomycota- bread molds, no cell walls, (zygote) Diploid is short lived

    Ascomycota- sac fungi- yeasts- Brewing and baking, delicacy mushrooms- truffles/ morrel, mildew, ergot

    Basidomycota- club fungi, mushrooms edible, toadstools- poisonous, puffballs, earth stars, shelf or ear fungus (pepeiao), smut

    Deutereomycota- fungi imperfect- life cycle not known, Penicillium- antibiotic, blue cheese
  41. Importance of isolation and the unique plants of the Hawaiian archipelago
    • -Ground dwelling birds (large)
    • -Huge plants
    • -Loss of dispersal ability
    • -Woodiness
    • -Unusual breeding systems
    • -Hybridization in species formation
  42. Examples of adaptive radiation from one ancestor: Silverswords, Lobiliods, Honey creeper birds, Picture Wing Flies, Happy Face Spiders, snails
    • -Sliverswords
    • -Honey creeper
    • -happy face spider
  43. Why the Hawaiian flora is so endangered?
    • -small population
    • -not adapted
    • -plants are specialized
    • - human disturbance
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Botany 101 Final Exam Study Guide.txt
Botany 101 Final