1. Glaucoma
    • disease characterized by higher than normal intraocular pressures.
    • Normal intraocular pressure is 21 mmHg.
  2. Closed Angle Glaucoma
    • Caused by a mechanical block of the outflow of aqueous humor through the Canal of Schlemm
    • Can occur with dilation of the eye in patients with small anterior chambers
    • Accounts for only about 5% of all glaucomas
    • Intraocular pressure may increase by 50 mmHg
    • A medical emergency
    • Monocular - usually occurs in just one eye
    • Laser surgery may be useful in correcting this problem
  3. Open Angle Glaucoma
    • Caused by decrease outflow or increased production of aqueous humor
    • Account for about 90% of all glaucomas
    • A chronic, slowly progressive disease
    • Usually occurs after age 50
    • Bilateral � usually occurs in both eyes
  4. Beta Blockers for treatment of Glaucoma
    • Decrease production of aqueous humor
    • Do not cause blurred vision
    • Use with caution in patients with asthma, diabetes and CHF
    • Topical
    • Timolol (Timoptic�)
  5. Alpha-2 Agonists for treatment of Glaucoma
    • Decreased production of aqueous humor
    • Increased uveoscleral outflow
    • Use with caution in patients with severe cardiovascular disease
    • Topical agent: Brimonidine (Alphagan)
  6. Parasympathomimetic Agents (Cholinergics)
    • Cause contraction of ciliary muscles which opens trabecular meshwork, leading to increased outflow of aqueous humor
    • Often cause decreased vision and headache
    • Topical agent:
    • Pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine�, Ocusert Pilo, Pilopine HS, Pilagan)
  7. Sympathomimetic Agents
    • Stimulation of alpha receptors increases outflow of aqueous humor
    • Usually combined with other agents
    • Often cause blurred vision
    • Topical agent: Apraclonidine (Iopidine), Epinephrine (Epifrin�)
  8. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • Cause decreased production of aqueous humor
    • Associated with numerous side effects (drowsiness, malaise & depression
    • Used after other drugs have failed
    • Topical, Oral or Intravenous
    • Acetazolamide (Diamox)
    • Brinzolamide (Azopt)
    • Dorzolamide (Trusopt)

    Prostaglandin Agonist
  9. Cause increased outflow of aqueous humor
    • May gradually change eye color
    • Can cause blurred vision or stinging and burning of the eye
    • Used after other drugs have failed
    • Administer 5 minutes apart from other drugs
    • Topical
    • Latanoprost (Xalatan)
Card Set