Gov White Book 10

  1. Judicial review
    Power of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states
  2. Constitutional court
    Federal courts specifically created by the US Constitutionor by Congress pursuant to its authority in Article III
  3. Senatorial Courtesy
    A process by which presidents, when selecting district courtjudges, defer to the senator in whose state the vacancy occurs
  4. Marbury vs Madison
    Supreme Court case that declared a portion of aCongressional act unconstitutional and firmly set forth and established thepower of judicial review
  5. Brief
    A document containing the collected legal written argumentsin a case filed with a court by a party prior to a hearing or trial
  6. Original jurisdiction
    The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usuallyin trial. Courts determine the facts of a case under their originaljurisdiction
  7. Judicary Act of 1789
    Established the basic three-tiered structure of the federalcourt system
  8. Solicitor general
    The fourth-ranking member of the Justice Department;responsible for handling all appeals on behalf of the US government to theSupreme Court
  9. Judicial restraint
    A philosophy of judicial decision-making that argues courts shouldallow the decisions of other branches of government to stand, even when they offenda judge’s own sense of principles
  10. Rule of Four
    At least four justices of the SC must vote to consider acase before it can be heard
  11. Strict constructionist
    Approach to constitutional interpretation that emphasizesthe Framers’ initial intentions
  12. Criminal law
    Codes of behavior related to the protection of property and individualsafety
  13. Writ of certiorari
    A formal document issued from the SC to a lower federal orstate court that calls up a case
  14. Precedent
    Prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for settlingsubsequent cases of a similar nature
  15. Appellate court
    Courts that generally review only findings of law made by lowercourts
  16. Trial court
    Court of original jurisdiction where cases begin
  17. Legislative courts
    Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes,such as the Court of Military Appeals
  18. Judicial activism
    A philosophy of judicial decision-making that argues judgesshould use their power broadly to further justice, especially in the areas of equality and personal liberty
  19. Civil law
    Codes of behavior related to business and contractualrelationships between groups and individuals
  20. Amicus curiae
    “Friend of the court”: a third party to a lawsuit who filesa legal brief for the purpose of raising additional points of view in anattempt to influence a court’s decision
  21. Appellate jurisdiction
    The power vested in an appellate court to review and/orrevise the decision of a lower court
  22. Jurisdiction
    Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decidethe issues in any particular case
  23. Judicial implementation
    Refers to how and whether judicial decisions are translatedinto actual public policies affecting more than the immediate parties to a lawsuit
  24. Stare decisis
    In court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or precedentsto formulate decisions in new cases
Card Set
Gov White Book 10