POLSC 333 Final

  1. State-centric Views
    • Waltz (86) - States are not and never have been the onlyinternational actors. But then structures are dened not by allthe actors that ourish within them but by the major ones.
    • Meta-theory - Realism, to some extent Liberalism
  2. Transnational Relations
    Regular interactions across nationalboundaries when at least one actor is a non-state agent ordoes not operate on behalf of a national government or anintergovernmental organization
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    Transnational Relations
  4. Types of transnational nonstate actors (
    • Multinational Corporations
    • Drug cartels, terrorists, arms traders, money launderer, humantracker, etc (un-civil society)
    • Non-Governmental Organizations, INGOs, and other advocacyactors (civil society)
  5. Differences of transnational nonstate actors and states
    • In contrast to states, non-state actors lack sovereign control over population and territory
    • In contrast to IGOs, NGOs and other non-state actors are not created by states. They are created by private citizens with the exception: GONGOs - government owned (or organized) NGOs- sometimes designed by government to get money to developing country, spread own ideas
  6. Authority of non-state actors
    • Multinational corporations- market authority
    • Non-governmental organizations and advocacy actors- moral authority (some put terrorists in this category)
    • Drug cartels, terrorists, arms traders- violent authority
  7. INGO
    nonprofit, open membership organization that is not connected to any government and active in at least 3 states
  8. Human Rights
    Any right protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN); focus on basic political,civil, economic, social, and cultural rights
  9. Terrorism over time
    Terrorism is decreasing
  10. Characteristics of Human Rights (5)
    • Universal- birthright of all humans- not granted by state
    • Focus on inherent dignity and equal worth of all humans
    • Are equal, indivisible and interdependent
    • Have been internationally guaranteed and are legally protected
    • Provide a means to ensure accountability, including non-government actors
  11. Major international human right documents and US on the rights of the Child
    • US has not signed on Rights of the Child
    • Ratifying a human rights treaty doesn’t increase human rights practices
  12. Derogability
    • Certain rights can be taken away during time of emergency which makes them derogable
    • Non- derogable rights:
    • 1. Right to life
    • 2. Right of freedom from torture and other inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment
    • 3. Right to be free from slavery or servitude
    • 4. Right to be free from retroactive application of penal
  13. Generation of Rights
    • The adding on of rights
    • Political and civil rights- economic – social and cultural rights- solidarity (environment) rights
  14. Human Rights Violations
    • Incapacity: usually for economic, social and cultural rights
    • Can lack capacity to control political agents
    • Fits the political strategy of leaders
    • Is “best response” for perceived threats to national security
    • Most often case for political and civil rights- torture, political imprisonment, killing, forced disappearance
  15. Strategic Logic of Violations
    • States try to repress population to prevent protests
    • Protests- challenges to a regime- dissent at international or domestic level
    • Protests violent or non violent
  16. Big Determinants of human right violations
    • 1. Dictatorships and unstable democracies
    • More murder in the middle
    • In dictatorships: when there are multiparties
    • 2. Lower GDP per capita
    • 3. International and civil war
    • Civil war typically has greatest effect
  17. 3 Types of States
    • 1. Sincere Ratifiers: States that sign because they feel it reflects political preferences of majority of citizens
    • 2. False negatives: States that protect right but don’t sign treaties
    • Common law: law through courts and court decisions
    • 3. False positive: States that sign treaties but don’t protect rights
    • 1. Social camaflouge- less criticism
    • 2. Strategic manipulation- want to manipulate how treaty is interpreted
    • 3. Immediate gratification- want to make a tactical concession
  18. Compliance
    • 1. When states have lots of INGOs active in borders
    • 2. When not politically unstable
    • o Dictatorships with multiple political parties most likely to sign
  19. Characteristics of Religious attacks
    • Most are not carried out by religious groups
    • Religious groups are more deadly
    • Targets are diplomatic facilities and businesses
  20. 3 Reasons why Terrorism is Rational
    • 1. The strategies are rational
    • 2. People choose to become terrorists to advance personal goals
    • 3. Sometimes even random choice of targets is part of a strategy
  21. Strategic Logic of Terrorism
    • Terrorist networks rarely have sovereignty
    • o Weak related to targets (states)
    • o Weak relative to their demands
    • Terrorism is extreme form of asymmetrical warfare
    • o Can’t tax resort to criminal activities
    • o Wouldn’t win against a state’s army
  22. Terrorists as extremists
    • Politically weak relative to demands they make
    • Extremists have interests on the far side
    • Typically face much larger majority that doesn't share beliefs
    • Difficult for extremists to convince others to share their views
  23. Terrorism Networks
    • Terrorists adopt certain organizational forms that make defeating them difficult
    • Unlike networks of civil society organizations, terrorists form networks of small, self- contained “cells”
    • Terrorist groups are extremely sensitive to defection, which threatens to reveal information about members, supporters, strategies, etc
    • Religious organizations that have solved the defection problem have a “comparative advantage” in terrorism if they are violent
  24. Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism
    • 1. Part of cluster effect, not isolated or random
    • 2. Suicide terrorism mostly against democracy to make concessions to national self- determination
    • Terrorist goals/ withdrawal of troops
    • 3. Terrorists have learned that it pays- groups get concessions
    • 4. “moderate” suicide terrorism pays most
    • Little casualties for little concessions
    • Goals typically not national wealth and security
    • 5. Reduce suicide attacks by lower successfulness in attack
    • Reduce confidence
  25. Strategies of Terrorism and Best responses to them
    • 1. Coercion
    • group attacks to make demands more credible
    • Target uncertain of groups capabilities or resolve
    • Attacks in form of costly signaling
    • Actual attacks serve only to make credible threat of future violence
    • Induces policy change by imposing costs on
    • target
    • Use fear to motivate individuals to put pressure
    • on their governments

    • Best response:
    • 1. Concessions ( rarely admitted but frequently
    • pursued)
    • 2. Retaliation- precisely targeted
    • 3. Harden targets
    • 4. Dry weapons- nuke and chemicals
    • 5. Minimize psychological costs of terrorism and tendency people have to over react
  26. Strategies of Terrorism and Best responses to them
    • 2. Provocation
    • Home society or state is uncertain about preferences of target
    • Terrorists attacks target cannot identify terrorist precisely, collateral damage to home
    • Home “up dates” its beliefs about target’s
    • preferences
    • § It really is evil

    • Best response:
    • 1. As little collateral damage as possible
    • § Isolate terrorists from sympathizers or potential sympathizers
    • Demands intelligence and language
  27. Strategies of Terrorism and Best responses to them
    • 3. Spoiling
    • Home and target try to negotiate
    • § Terrorists wants to hold out for better terms
    • Target is uncertain about home’s ability to desire to honor agreement and restrain extremists
    • Terrorists attack, and target updates its beliefs that home cannot control terrorists
    • Target more likely to reject agreement/ change policy, thinks home is not credible
    • Best response:
    • Have 3rd parties during negotiations
    • Have mediators
    • Strategies that build trust
  28. Strategies of Terrorism and Best responses to them
    • 4. Outbidding
    • Terrorist group may attack target simply to increase support for group within home population
    • When two or more terrorist groups compete for support, a group may try to “outbid” the other; the group hopes to demonstrate its superior leadership and devotion
    • Best response:
    • Encourages groups to consolidate
    • § But can be a stronger terrorist group overall
    • Grant concessions to non violent group
  29. Crackdowns and economic externalities
    • If counterterrorism is on whole population and not sub segment, home population loses faith in targeted government and forces
    • “economic externalities” as a result of counterterrorism- counterterrorism hurts the economy, making more violence less costly
    • Crackdowns produce better terrorists
  30. NNGOs and SNGOs
    • Northern Based NGOs: based on industrial democracies
    • Southern Based NGOs: based on a developing country, usually thought of as not a consolidated democracy
    • Though of domestic and regional
    • Number of domestic NGOs are rising more faster
    • NNGOs still receive more money and attention
    • Most SNNGOs receive money from donor agencies or from NNGOs who contract with them to carry out projects
    • Evidence of western bias and paternalistic relationships
  31. Norm Life Cycle
    • 1. Actors attempt to convince an important population to accepts and embrace their belief
    • 2. The norm becomes a near universal standard of behavior
    • o B/4 internalized, norms are enforced by moral disapproval of others or by sanctions
    • 3. Norm is internalized
  32. Boomerang Pattern
    • Domestic NGOs in one state activate transnational linkages to bring pressure from other states to bear on their own government
    • Pressure from population below and from international states above
    • o International pressure- shaming
  33. Types of goods and environmental problems
    • Non-excludable: if good is available for one actor to consume, then other actors can’t be prevented from consuming it
    • Non-rival: one actor’s consumption of goods doesn't diminish quantity available for others to consume as well
  34. Externalities
    • Costs or benefits for others than the person making the decision (purchasing power)
    • Many times goods that are completely private still create negative externalities concerning environments
    • Positive externalities
    • o Benefits from buying wood from a company that plants 2 trees for every 1 harvested
    • Problem for the environment
    • o Getting those that are hurt from negative externalities interested enough to mobilize and petition
  35. Common Pool Resources
    • Non- excludable but rival in consumption: hard to exclude someone but their consumption hurts your consumption
    • Lots of natural resources
    • Problem for environment: over exploitation and fear others will take it if you don’t
  36. Small number of actors
    • Easier to get cooperation
    • Some global environmental problems, like climate change, are difficult to solve because they affect large population and a large number of countries
  37. Issue Linkages
    • Groups that intersect frequently on other issues
    • (linkages) are most successful.
    • o Joint products/ selective incentives:
    • § Positive externalities from environmental decisions
  38. Privileged groups
    • Actors may vary in intensity of preferences for cooperation
    • o Privileged group: Some groups might have very strong preferences for public goods
    • o Privileged groups composed of one or a few actors who receive benefits themselves from public good. Group willing to bear costs of providing that good for everyone
  39. Soft and Hard Law
    • Soft Law: norms of behavior without teeth or clear cut written standards
    • o Many international environmental institutions start out
    • Hard Law: soft law after it has formal monetary mechanisms
  40. WMDS
    • Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons
    • o Also radiological weapons
    • Precise term: CBRN weapons
    • o Leading cause of death in war= handguns
    • Biological and chemical- outlawed by Geneva Conventions, biological weapons convention
    • Nuclear- regulated by Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (1960s)
  41. Nuclear Peace
    • Never been a nuclear war
    • Nuclear taboo
    • Theory: nuclear weapons create a situation of mutual deterrence- resolve disputes short of nuclear war
    • o Mutually assured destruction
  42. Rise of China
    • China will overtake US as world’s largest economy sometime soon
    • However, there is technology and militarization that matters too
    • It isn’t the rising superpower to worry about as much as a declining hegemony
    • o Over stretches itself
    • o Provokes others
  43. Containment and Engagement
    • 1.containment: deter and delay challenge
    • slow down China's economic growth
    • strengthen alliances with China's neighbors
    • 2. Engagement:
    • integrate China into the U.S.-led order.
    • more what the US is doing today, role of domestic economic
    • general idea: make interests more complementary
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POLSC 333 Final
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