Food Prep FInal

  1. How will the pigment of a fruit/veg react in an acid?
  2. How will the pigment of a fruit/veg react in a nuetral?
  3. How will the pigment of a fruit/veg react in a base?
  4. What is a caratonoid?
    • -not water soluble
    • -heat stable
    • -yellow/orange/red in color
    • -ex. Vitamin A-Beta Carotene
    • -foods:apricots, pappaya, mango, peaches,nectarines
  5. What is chlorophyll
    • -water soluble
    • -not heat stable
  6. Chlorophyll A
    • -Blue/Green in color
    • -very unstable in heat
  7. Chlorophyll B
    • -Olive Green
    • -More heat stable then A
    • -Alkali substances will brighten
  8. Betalains
    • -Purple/Red/Yellow
    • -Beets, Swiss Chards
  9. What are the 3 flavinoids
    • -Antocyanin
    • -Anthoxnthin
    • -Belatains
  10. Anthocyanin
    Blue, Red, Violet

    • In acid-red
    • Nuetral-purple
    • In base-blue
  11. What is Ripening?
    When a starch converts to a sugar
  12. Factors that effect Ripening
    • -pectic substances degrade
    • -vitamins may increase or decrease
    • -protein, fat, minerals stay the same
    • -color intensifies as chlorophyll degrades
    • -aroma is intensified
    • -acidity is decreased, more basic
    • -lowered temperatures delay ripening
  13. What is artificial ripening?
    • -When ethylene gas is used to ripen a fruit faster.
    • -Ex-leaving a brown paper bag full of bananas will ripen faster than bananas left out on the counter, bc the ethylene gas will be collected
  14. Protopectin
    • -When fruits are not ripe
    • -Insoluble
  15. Pectin
    • -When fruits are optimally ripe
    • -Water solubke
    • -Softer
  16. Pectic Acid
    Over ripened fruit becomes moistened
  17. Tempering
    mixing a small amount of a hot ingredient into a cold ingredient before adding all of the cold ingredient to the hot ingredient. The purpose of tempering is to prevent the cold ingredient from curdling or lumping when it is mixed into the hot ingredient. Tempering is commonly used when eggs or egg yolks are being added to a hot mixture
  18. Poaching
    • -Process of gently simmering a food in a liquid, to prevent dispersion vinegar can be added.
    • -To obtain a good shape during this process it is important to use grade AA
  19. Sizes of eggs
    • Jumbo-30 oz
    • X-Large-27 oz
    • Large-24
    • Medium-21oz
    • Small-18 oz
    • PeeWee-15oz
  20. Function of Yolk
    -Has lecithin and emulsifier
  21. Function of Shell Membrane
    • -Protects the egg from bacterial invasion
    • -keeps the yolk from moving to the ends of the yolk, it centers the egg
  22. Function of Albumen
    • -Protects the yolk
    • -Contains the protein
  23. Funtion of Chalazae
    Anchors the yolk
  24. Grade AA egg
    • -Egg contents cover a small area
    • -The albumen is firm, and thick surrounding the yolk
    • -Yolk is round and upstanding
  25. Grade A Egg
    • -Egg contents cover a moderate area
    • -White is reasonably firm
    • -Yolk is round and upstanding
  26. Grade B Egg
    • -Egg contents cover a large area
    • -White is weak and watery, doesn't have a thick white
    • -Yolk is enlarged and flattened
    • -Covers a large area
  27. As Purchased Example
    A Head of lettuce
  28. Edible Portion Example
    Cut up lettuce with the inedible parts removed
  29. Waste % Example
    Amount of waste that is left over that can not be used to make edible portion. Ex. outer bad leaves, cone of the head of lettuce
  30. Specific Heat
    • -How much heat is held by a food relative to water
    • -Ability to hold heat
    • -Tomato Sauce Vs. H20
  31. Specific Gravity
    • -Weight relative to water
    • -The higher the specific gravity the higher the density
    • -Milk vs. H20
  32. Temperature of Freezing
    • 32 degrees F
    • 0 degress C
  33. Temperature of Boiling
    • 212 degrees F
    • 100 degress C
  34. Temperature of Simmering
    180 degrees F
  35. Denaturation
    • -The unraveling of protein molecules by means of heat, acid, mixing.
    • -Function is changed
    • -Ex-cooking steak, cooking eggs
  36. Gelatinization
    • -The irreversible swelling of starch when cooked in a liquid
    • -Ex. cooking pasta
  37. Carmelization
    -Occurs when sugar melts and browns
  38. Deglaze
    -Adding liquid to a pan drippings and simmer while scraping particles off the pan
  39. Al Dente
    • -"to the tooth"
    • -firm, chewy, firm core
    • -when biting into the pasta center it should have a white core
  40. Organic
    -Grown with out the use of pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers
  41. Roux
    • -Use of fat to disperse starches
    • -Liquid is added after dispersion
    • -Then heated until thickened
  42. Emulsification
    -When two liquids that don't normally mix together are bound by either mayo or dry mustard
  43. What kind of potato is mealy?
  44. Description of Mealy potatoes
    • -Russet
    • -Starchy
    • -Amylose Starch
    • -Lower in sugar
    • -Tends to flake easier b/c of the less complex structure
  45. What kind of potato is waxy?
    Red Bliss
  46. Description of waxy potatos
    • -Red Bliss
    • -Lower Starch
    • -Amylopectin Starch
    • -Structure is more complex
    • -Best for potato dishes that need to hold shape
    • -Ex. stews, potato salad
  47. Conduction
    • -Physical transfer of heat from one molecule to another.
    • -Ex-deep frying in a pan
    • -Slow method
  48. Convection
    • -Circulation of currents through air, liquid, fat
    • -Ex. baking cake in oven and boiling h20 in a pan
    • -mechanical-relies on fans to circulate heat quickly and evenly
  49. Radiation
    • -Vibration from high frequency waves through air, and does not require physical contact between hear source and food
    • -Infrared-Toasters, broiler, hot coals, direct flame
    • -Microwave-Heat made by high frequency waves-agitates h20 molecules
  50. 4 parts of the salad
    • -base
    • -body
    • -dressing
    • -garnish
  51. What is the base of a salad?
    • -something that holds whole salad
    • -doesn't have to be eaten
    • -may be just for appearance
  52. Body of a salad
    • -The actual part of the salad that is eaten
    • -Main ingredients
    • -Biggest part of the salad
  53. Permanant Emulsion
    -Lecithin from egg and mayo are used to form very strong attractions
  54. Semi-Permanent
    Ex-French Dressing, doesn't separate out completely
  55. Temporary Emulsion
    • -Ex-Oil and vinegar
    • - When substances have too different of densities and will not form together as one
  56. Mirepoix
    -Mixture of onions, carrots, celery that is added to stock and is added for great flavor and aroma
  57. Reduction
    Simmering or boiling a liquid until it becomes richer and more concentrated through evaporation
  58. Au Jus
    The un-thickened droppings leftover after cooking a meat or poultry
  59. Roux
    Use of fat to disperse starches, liquid is added after dispersion, then heated and thickened
  60. How to make a basic white sauce
    • 1. Melt butter and clarify
    • 2. Add in equal parts of flour
    • 3. Mix in scalded milk (140F)
    • 4. Allow to thicken
  61. Fresh Eggs
    The albumen is cloudy
  62. Old Eggs
    • -Chalazae ropes get thinner and less prominent
    • -Albumen becomes more transparent b/c of a loss in CO2
    • -Albumen becomes alkaline and thins
    • -Yolk becomes thinner and flatter
    • -Air cell gets larger
  63. Candling
    • -Used to see deteorative changes like
    • -Albumen becoming alkaline and thin
    • -Yolk becoming flat
    • -Chalazae becoming less prominent
    • -Air cell becomes larger
  64. Fractionation
    Any process that changes the shape and condition of whole grains
  65. Hulling
    removing the husk
  66. Cracking
    Grains being broken open
  67. Grinding
    Grains reduced to powder
  68. Pearing
    All parts of the hull, bran, germ that are removed
  69. Extrusion
    • -Making shapes from dough
    • -Ex. Cheerios
  70. Storage of Eggs
    • -Hard boiled- use in one week
    • -Raw in shell- use in 4 to 5 weeks of packaging date
    • -Store away from other strong odors
    • -Potentially hazardous from salmonella, thats why you don't want to mix shell with inside contents
    • -Keep large side up
    • -Keep in cartons, store at 40F
  71. Mother Sauces
    • -Used as a base for smaller sauces, rarely served as is
    • -EXCEPT tomato and hollaindase
    • 1. bechemal 2. uelate 3. espagnole 4. tomato 5. hollaindase
  72. Small Sauces
    Thickened liquid used to add flavor and enhance other foods. Adds moisture, richness, visual appeal, should complement a dish

    ex. cheese, cream, mushroom
  73. Stock
    Thickened liquid that is key to good soups and sauces
  74. Egg White Foams
    • -Increases eight times in size
    • -Used for volume and leavening
    • -Stages-foamy, soft peak, stiff peak, over beaten
    • -Don't use plastic bowls b/c traces of fat are left in the scratches
    • -Cream tartar denatures foam
  75. USDA
    United States Department of Agriculture is a federal agency responsible for administering programs that address farming issues
  76. FDA
    Food and Drug Administration: a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health-related products
  77. EPA
    Environmental Protection Agency: an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
  78. CDC
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention: a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services; located in Atlanta; investigates and diagnoses and tries to control or prevent diseases (especially new and unusual diseases)
  79. Air-Leavening
    • -No heat involved, achieved by sifting, kneading, mixing, adding foams, whipping
    • -Used in foaming ingredients like egg whites and whipping cream
  80. Steam Leavening
    Happens in products that contain liquids, use rapid high rate temperatures
  81. Chemical Leavening
    • -Baking soda
    • -Baking powder
    • -Is much quicker than yeast
    • -Chemical reaction takes place between acids and bases
  82. Beating
    To agitate or store at a fast rate
  83. Folding
    To turn over a batter very gently with a spatula, especially when there is delicate berries in the batter
  84. Cutting in
    • To work in fat into dry ingredients with a pastry blender or two knifes
    • -ex. making pies
  85. Kneading
    Stretches the dough and develops gluten, it gives bread texture, also distributes the gases that yeast produces
  86. Creaming
    To work one or more foods until soft
  87. Whisking
    To move in light sweeping motions-can whisk eggs or cream
  88. The part of the wheat grained that is milled into white flour is the?
  89. The standard eggs that are used in recipes are what size? and how many oz?
    Large, 21 oz
  90. When peeling eggs hardboiled eggs for deviled eggs it is best to use what eggs?
    Eggs that aren't too fresh
  91. Lecithin is found where in the egg?
    The yolk
  92. Washing the shell of eggs remove the what?
    The cuticle
  93. Approximate cholesterol in a large egg is
    200 mg
  94. The part of the egg that holds in or contains the egg yolk, when this part is broken the egg yolk will spill out
    Air pocket
  95. What ingredients help stabilize egg white foams?
    sugar, cream of tartar, vinegar, lemon juice
  96. The cloudy appearance of egg whites indicates that
    The egg is fresh and that there are high amounts of carbon dioxide
  97. The type of rice that is most valued for
    foodservice use due to the short cooking time and intact shape and texture caused by pre-steaming
    Instant Rice
  98. What is an aquatic grass seed?
    Wild Rice
  99. What vitamins are added to products?
    • -Thiamin
    • -Niacin
    • -Iron
    • -Riboflavin
    • -Folate
  100. Dispersion of starch granules in cool liquid
    before adding hot liquids
  101. weeping, or separation of
    liquid from a gel
  102. What part of the wheat kernel hold the fat?
    -The germ
  103. Are grits made from hominy?
  104. What is added to “quick” cooking
    cereals to decrease the time for cooking & softening grain products?
  105. An egg white that flops is at what stage?
    The soft peak stage foam
  106. Does egg yolk or egg white denature at a higher temperature?
    Egg yolk
  107. Three ways to reduce oxidate enzymatic browning
    • -blanching
    • -adding lemon juice
    • -ascorbic acid
  108. What limits absorption of calcium during digestion?
    Oxalic Acid
  109. The fleshy part of the apple that is eaten is the?
  110. Muscle composition of meat
    • -most of protein
    • -typle of muscle determines fiber
    • -ATP energy used for contracting muscle
  111. What are the two fibers found in meat?
    Sarcollemmia-outer covering of fiber

    Fibrils- contraction, relaxtion proteins actin/myosin-slide together with the contraction
  112. Connective Tissues
    • -Made up of ligaments and tendons
    • -Acts like a glue to hold muscle cells together
  113. Collagen
    the most abundant connective tissue, melts with cooking
  114. Elastin
    AKA the gristle does not soften with cooking
  115. High connective tissue
    Tougher meats
  116. Lower connective tissue
    More tender
  117. Wholesale cuts of meat
    large cuts of the carcass, not for retail usually, have to get from butcher
  118. Retail
    Cuts that are used for the market, not as good of quality as wholesale
  119. Effects of slaughtering meat in the change in color
    • -Meat is purple when slaughtered, turns bright red b/c of oxygen exposure
    • - Wrapping and lighting causes meat to turn brown
    • -Denaturing causes pigments to turn brown
  120. Most tender cuts of meat
    primal cuts of rib, short loin, sirloin
  121. Medium Tender Cuts
    Chuck, round
  122. Least Tender Cuts
    Flank, foreshank, short-plate, brisket
  123. Prime grade
    Found at resteraunts and butchers
  124. Choice Grade
    Most common in the market place
  125. Select Grade
    Found in the marketplace
  126. Standard Grade
    low quality meats such as the meats that are in canned soups, highly processed foods, or prepared foods
  127. Grading
    • -Voluntary
    • -Color, texture, marbling
    • -Prime, choice, select
    • -Standard-utility, canner cutter also law quality
  128. Inspection
    • -Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 make meats that cross the state line a mandatory inspection
    • -USDA is responsible for food safety and inspection service
    • -Wholesomeness and fit for human consumption
  129. Moist heat methods
    • -Moisture and time softens connective tissue in tough cuts
    • -Ex: stewing, crock pot, braising, simmering
  130. Dry Heat Methods
    • -Less time for tender cuts
    • -Ex: grilling, frying, open roasting, broiling
  131. Variety Meats
    -Tongue, Heart, Liver, Gizzards
  132. Processed Meats
    • -Contain Nitrites (bologna)
    • -Contain Carcinogens- cancer causing
    • -Keeps color fresh looking
    • -Sodium, coloring, preservatives
  133. Information about tenderizing meats
    • -Uses enzyme tenderizer- papain
    • -Grinding meat fibers
    • -Meat mallet
    • -Adding Fat (sauces, butter)
    • -Moist heat methods
    • -Having less connective tissue- ex. fish
    • -Marinades with acid ingredients
    • -Bromelin and FICN enzymes
  134. Quick Breads
    quick to make and bake, no yeast, leavens with air, steam, chemical agents
  135. Yeast Breads
    • -Yeast buds ferment
    • -Heavily manipulated, longer time needed for kneading, proofing,shaping
  136. Gluten
    • -Rubbery mass with the texture of chewing gum
    • - developed by the manipulation of hydrated flour
    • -used to increase protein content
    • -Structure-holds gases and steam

    *Fat and sugar limit the development of gluten
  137. Gliaden
    • -Gives dough its fluid and stickiness
    • -Soluble in alcohol
  138. Glutenin
    • -Gives elasticity to dough
    • -Insoluble in alcohol
Card Set
Food Prep FInal